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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

NMC343 LECTURE 9 Thurs. 15 Nov., 2012 Pepy I and the Noble Family of Khui of Abydos (the Saqqara Stone) Pepy I Ankhnesmeryre I and Ankhnesmeryre II | (daughters of Khui and Nebet, sisters of Djau) | Merenra Ankhnesmeryre II | (sister of Ankhnesmeryre I) | Pepy II (grandson of Pepy I) Queen Ankhnesmeryre II and Pepy II - son of Pepy I and his wife Ankhnesmeryre II - Ascended to the throne as a child, with his mother acting as regent - Statue with mother o Size difference o Pepy II Was this made during his minority (while she was regent) and showing power? Represents his mother as a goddess? - Ankhnesmeryre may have been helped by her brother Djau - Reign: o Turin Canon: 90 years o Manetho: 94 years o Archaeological proof of year 65 o Longest reigning monarch in the world Pepy II? Tomb of Harkhuf - Located in the hills of Kubbet el-Hawa - Example of non-royal biography - Biography: o Family tradition of exploration under Merenre to the land called Yam (south of modern Khartoum) o Four journeys into Nubia; negotiates peace between southern Lyba o Third journey: Diplomacy Yam vs southern Libyans o Letter of Pepy II So important that Harkhuf has it transcribed to be posted on the wall of his tomb Letter promises Harkhuf that his son will be rewarded for his loyalty Tells Harkhuf to bring the dwarf (pygmy) from Nubia My majesty desires to see this dwarf more than the gifts of Sinai and of Punt Insight into Pepy II as a child, with the power of a king Wives of Pepy II - Neith (royal mother of heir: Merenre Nemtyemsaf - Iput II (half sister) - Udjebten (daughter of Pepy I) - Ankhnespepy III (grand-daughter) o Has Saqarra Stone written on other side of sarcophagus Saqarra Stone allows us to understand this period of Dynasty VI o His sons daughter o Stays in the family to take care of her grandfather NMC343 LECTURE 9 Thurs. 15 Nov., 2012 o Political alliance/cementing status in court - Ankhnespepy IV (mother of Neferkare-Nibi) Pepy II - Expeditions: o Sinai o Hatnub o Wadi Hammamat o Nubia (incense, slaves/labour) o Punt (shipping lanes, incense) o Byblos (true timber, silver) - Increase in military forays o Sends armed trade envoys - Increasing reliance on Libyan and Nubian mercenaries o Nomarchs are starting to put together private armies o Wealth of nomarchs are being solidified in this period due to hereditary wealth doing kings will with their own personal army - His long rule is cited as the reason for the decline of the old kingdom (fatigue in the administration; heirs die before he does) - Decline of the OK o Long rule and disintegration of central rule Nomarchs becoming powerful and exerting greater influence Large expensive tombs in major nomes of Egypt built by: Nomarchs Priestly Class Administrators of Nomarchs Tombs of certain sizes were significant social status Splitting of role of the vizier Vizier of Upper and Lower Egypt Decentralization of rule (less power in direct hands of the king) o Climate Change: 4.2 kiloyear BP aridification event Sudden sharp change in the environment, lasts about 100 years, for the first 20 there are devastatingly low Nile floods (directly impacts the amount of food available) o At the beginning of the 6 Dynasty, the king decides where they will build their tombs th o At the end of the 6 Dynasty individuals can supply their own tombs and decide where/how to build their own tombs and not wait for the king Weni - Served under three kings: o Teti Minor official o Pepy I friend and Priest Appointed judge over Harem Conspiracy Military action in the land of the Sand Dwellers o Merenre Given title of Governor of Upper EgyptNMC343 LECTURE 9 Thurs. 15 Nov., 2012 Double tomb of Mekhu and Sabni: 25/26 - Tomb of father and son - Governor of Upper Egypt during reign of Pepy I - Mekhu murdered while on expedition in Nubia - Sabni retrieved his fathers body o Pepy gave him permission to travel and promises to pay for the mummification of Mekhu o But Sabni pays for the tomb Shows the weak position the king is in at this point: all he can offer is mummification Before this point, non-royals were not mummified (change in religious status?) - Beautifully decorated tomb o Shows Sabni hunting with his daughters Changes in Government of the Sixth Dynasty - Goes from strong highly organized administration, to non-uniform - Duality of Form in some titles o Overseer of the Two Granaries - Not strictly uniform: o Governor of Upper Egypt no equivalent Lower Egyptian title - Vizier(s) o Superintendent of all works o Supreme judge - Court required a great variety of functionaries o Courtiers, Friends, Kings Acquaintances, Sandal Bearers, Keepers of the Robes and Crowns, Manicurist
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