NMC101 Lecture 2.doc

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Katja Goebs

NMC101 Lecture 2 Upper and Lower Egypt: Two very different landscapes: 1. Delta • Rosetta (Port el-rashid)/ canopic/ water of re • Damietta (Dumyat)/ sebennytic/ water of ptah • Pelusoac (pelusium) / water of amun (now dry) Geziras/ turtlebacks. 2. Nile Vlley (at Awan) - thin strip of fertile land - vast expanse of inhabitable dessert Natural frontiers • North  Mediterranean Sea • NE  Sinai • East  Eastern Dessert *harbours along the red sea. • South, at Aswan - FIRST OF FIVE CATARACTS/ RAPIDS • West  Libyan desert/oases South: First Cataract Formation of igneous rocks - Resistant to erosion Before Aswan High dam - River divided into smaller streams by islands settlements and temples - Stretched for 10 km - Today several islands flooded - Some temples shifted. West: Libyan desert + oases - Inhabitants of oases always a bit different - dress, customs, etc. Foreigners - seen as [otential threat - called “nine bows” - “breaking the bow” = metaphor for military defeat. Includes various groups -nubians -asiatic/ easterner -libyan/ westerner 3. Natural resources a) agricultural products b) stone GEOLOGICAL MAKEUP OF EGYPT - Underbed of granite - Nubian sandstone - Limestone - Alabaster/calcite - Greywacke Primary houses made of mudbrick but in Egypt, they made MONUMENTS OUT OF STONE. c) semi-precious stones - amethyst - feldspar/ porphyry - carnelian AMULETS >>>>> THEY LOVE BRIGHT COLOURS ~ COSMIC RELIGIOUS VIEWS d) metals - Copper - Tin - Gold - Bronze (made of copper & tin) ALL THEIR WEAPONRY = MAD
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