Lecture 5.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Important Points: Lecture #5 September-24-12 2:03 PM Favorite exam question! The problems in establishing an "absolute chronology" - Co-regencies Homework:  Multiple kings reigning at one time  Rulers dated things from their succession to the throne D. Brewer and E. Teeter, “Egyptian art: Craftsmen, - King's List techniques, and conventions, in Eid., Egypt and the  Some left off of list Egyptians, 189–207 □ Foreign leaders, women, kings who have fallen - Incomplete sources G. Robins, “Art”,  The means by which they wrote does not survive very well in T. Wilkinson, The Egyptian world (London, New York,  Only getting royal side 2007), 355–87. - Cyclical time-keeping of Egyptians (counting regnal years) - Contemporary dynasties during Intermediate Periods Get Chart online! Lecture Topic: Egyptian Art During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Summary of Last Lecture ○ Distinct material cultures in Delta and Valley  Progressively "fuse" ○ Predynastic Cultures in Lower Egypt  Buto  Merimde  Maadi/El-Omari  Fayyum A  Girza ○ Predynastic Cultures in Upper Egypt  Badari/Tasa  Naqada (name of culture that spread through entire valley)  El-Amra ○ Lower Egyptian Pre-Dynastic Cultures Fayum A Merimde El-Omari Ma'adi Buto Badari Naqada I Naqada II From c. 5,500 c.5,000-4,500 c.4,600 - 4,400 c.4,000-3,200 BCE From c.4,400-4,000 c.4,000-3,500 BCE c.3,500-3,200 BCE BCE BCE c.3,500 BCE BCE Sedentary Semi Yes (Villages Yes (?) Yes ? w. up to 16000 inhabitants Agricultur 168 Granaries, Various grains -> Advanced e/Organiz Silos/Granarie (Mud-brick) Agricult. Not agriculture and ation s Huts in rows evolved craft specialization Animal Goats, sheep, Fishing (First) Donkeys; Herding various Husbandr pigs important fish, pigs, goats animals y? Burial ? Burial within Mat-lined pits, Most: Oval pits; practices village; NO foetus-position, foetus position; grave goods head S, Face W --> sparse grave Necropoleis; goods; BUT: Wadi sparse grace Digla: clear goods Stratification ○ Tools Flint, Sea shell Stone Copper axe-heads/ Maadi and Increasing Similar to Badari, Copper working spoons, maceheads, maces of copper Naq. Style importance of but great advances common; --> from Polished bone: hooks, net ore copper tools, in stone cutting East desert and Pinsm weights, esp. pins and Sinai; Gold and harpoons harpoons beads silver (Anatolia) Pottery Coarse Like Fayum, Unrefined Sim. To others, Maadi and Reddish-brown Like Badari + Red Fancy pottery styles pottery, no but finer some Palestinian Naq. Style, color with with white deco., ("decorated ware" decoration influence; + in local clay black area some contact with Potmarks around rim western Asia --> imported lapis and
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