Lecture 7.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #7 October-01-12 Topics: Languagecontinued 2:02 PM Foundation of State and Early Dynastic Period Homework: Important Points: ASSIGNMENT #1 Lecture Topic: Language Continued During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Egyptian hieroglyphs appeararound 3100 BCE  Are both: ○ Pictographs (images) and phonograms (sounds)  The Rosetta Stone ○ Why important?  One text written in three languages, used for translations ○ Three languagesand scripts  Hieroglyphic  Demotic  Greek ○ Handed to Britain in 1802 British Museum  ○ Initial steps at deciphering:  Thomas Young ○ Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832)  Final breakthrough □ Jean-francois Champollion  Focused on royal names in cartouches  Additionaldocuments available now  Combined with his knowledgeof Coptic (latest language stage of Ancient Egyptian, written in Greek letters)  In 1824: □ Precis du systeme hieroglyphique  Established phonetic characterof script  Some facts about Eg. Hieroglyphs ○ Egyptian = Afro-Asiatic (also called Hamito-Semitic) ○ Phonograms represent consonant sounds(no vowels)  Many evolved out of: ideograms/logograms ○ Ideograms/Logograms --> represent meaning (pic of eye may mean "eye") ○ Different types of phonograms:  Uniliteral (="1-letter" = (24), biliteral, triliteral, quadriliteral) ○ Normally  Combination of uniliteral and others □ + Ideogram as Determinative:  (windpipeand stomach) = triliteral n-f-r ◊ Most common --> "good, perfect, beautiful" ◊ Combines nfr - sign plus uniliterals snake for f and mouth for r  "phonetic complements" (--> read n-f-r phoneticallyhere) □ Common Determinatives  Actions of head and heart: ◊ Eating, speaking, loving, thinking, etc.  Abstract concepts ◊ Ideas, suggestions, convictions, etc  | ("Ideogram stroke") --> read what is depicted ◊ Several ideogram strokes = "dual"or "plural strokes" □ The Rebus Principle  "things principle"  Image of eye + ideogram stroke ◊ "eye" = Phonetic jr (t) ◊ Egyptian "to do" = jr(j)  Can be written: – Picture of eye  Picture of eye - deology  (ideology) ◊ Equivalent:  To (image of bear) – "to bear" Hieroglyphic - Sacred carvings in stone  NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1 – "to bear" - Sacred carvings in stone  Evolution of the Language: 5 Phases 1. Old Egyptian --> Old Kingdom Hieratic
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