Lecture 15.pdf

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Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course Code
NMC101H1
Professor
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

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Lecture #15 October-31-12 1:58 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Important Points:  THE OLD KINGDOM (II) – THE STATE AND ITS ADMINISTRATION  Egyptian Women Lecture Topic: The Old Kingdom (II) - The State and its Administration During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  OK External Affairs- (Trade and ) Agression ○ Some aggressive behaviour: ○ Towards end of Dyn. 5 --> Tomb scenes of conquered Asiatic cities ○ Pepi I (dyn. 6) attempts to extend Egyptian control there  --> Egyptian armies repeatedly fight "sand-dwellers". i.e. Bedouins ○ Always two sides to Egyptian policy  Foreigners are evil/ifet - political  Of course we have to trade - diplomatic ○ Libya  Small campaign against Libyan tribes as early as Snofru / early Dyn. 4 (c.2620BCE) □ --> trade routes south --> through Western Desert and oases --> secure free passage  400 years later, in Dyn 6 ○ Nubia  Egyptian campaigns in South □ As early as Snofru  Some 20000soldiers sent to Nubia  Stealing cattle, (allegedly) taking 17000and another 7000 prisoners in 2 campaigns  Used as laborers and auxiliary police (--> Medjai --> beginning tradition)  Large numbers of E.g. Soldiers stationed in Nubia: □ New Garrisons such as Buhen □ Securing/supervising trade routes □ Wadi Allaqi  (stone quarries and gold supplies)  And quarries in Western Desert ○ Nubia - Later OK  Under Sahure (2nd king 5th Dyn.) First mention of obtaining incense from Punt (Somalia/Eritrea) □  Djedkare-Izezi (late 5th Dyn.) □ Evidence for push further south, into Yam/in Dongola basin (3rd catar) □ Reflected in traded goods: animal skins, ivory, incense, a dancing dwarf*  Expeditions from Elephantine through desert □ Native Nubian bedouin guides, interpreters, and soldiers □ Route (could be travelled by donkey) called "Oasis Road"  Bahriya, Dakhla, Kurkur, Slima, Dungul --> to region of 3rd cataract  Nubian princes themselves under threat from roaming Bedouin □ Support Egyptian policy in South □ Provide troops for campaigns in Asia (--> cf. Report of Weni) □ Nubians and Egyptians can be seen to work together on occasion  Towards end of Dyn. 6 --> threat to trade routes increased --> 3 expeditions to Yam (3rd cataract) □ Series of Egyptian officials' reports)  Sabni of Aswan (late Dynasty VI) □ Brings back to Elephantine body of his father Mehu --> killed by Bedouin  Expedition leader Aaenankhet ○ Most important source for interactions with Nubia:  Harkuf of Aswan (under Merenre and Pepy II) □ Also "Head of Upper Egypt" □ Three expeditions to Yam (3rd cataract region):  Tomb inscriptions include letter by child-king Pepy II ◊ Instructs to take good care of a dancing dwarf (AEL I, 26-7*)  The End of the Old Kingdom ○ Potentially internal power struggle  Pepi II (After 67 or 94 years) succeeded by Antiemsaf II-Merenre  Herodotus: dies in "Harimconspiracy" after 1 year  Herodotus: dies in "Harimconspiracy" after 1 year ○ Herodotus (II, 100)/ Turin king list state that:  Succeeded briefly by queen --> sister or wife (?) Nitokris/Neith-ikeret □ No CONTEMPORARY evidence ○ Infrastructure seems destroyed ○ Ensuing reigns short  Few records for Dyn. 7-8  Continue to rule from Memphis  Continue to build pyramids --> only have remnants of Aba ○ At same time: Upper Egyptian nomarchs fight for prominence  --> eventually --> Coup d'etat by Herakleopolis ○ First Intermediate Period begins  First period of decentralization Lecture Topic : Egyptian Women • Women's status within Egyptian Society ○ Depended on fathers and husbands --> not a homogenous group ○ BUT: COMPARATIVELYmany individual rights  Legal position □ Considered equal with men before law □ Responsible for own actions, answerable to court □ Could attend court unaccompanied  Rights of ownership and inheriting □ Could own or rent property □ Sons and daughters received equal share of inheritance  Women could acquire substantial income on parents' death □ Wives, too, could inherit husbands' wealth:  Priest Wah from the M
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