Lecture 14.pdf

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #14 October-29-12 2:06 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Important Points:  Interaction between living and dead  Funerary texts  Old Kingdom (II) Lecture Topic: Religion I ctd. During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Interaction between living and dead  Funerary texts  3 components of a person: akh, ba, ka  Appeal to the Living ○ Attests to significance of continued cult ○ Reflects unreliability of cultic provisions ○ From the 3rd IP  Deceased turns directly to god  Mummy is a house for the soul  Inscriptions in tomb would ask for prayers from those who would pass by ○ Family or other citizens  Letters to the Dead ○ Belief that dead could haunt, or help ○ Found in Coptic Period ○ Written to Akh  Believed the Akh could come out of the tomband interact □ Interact nicely or not nicely  Ghosts of the dead were very much with you  Festival Visits ○ On festival days --> family and friends celebrate in tomb chapel  NK/Hathshepsut: Beautiful Festival of the Valley □ Amun in procession to Luxor --> then necropolis  Relatives bring flowers and provisions  Music, celebrations in entrance areas of tombs ○ Tombs of Neferhotep:  "Celebrate the day, put perfume and ointment to your nose, put lotus and garlands on your chest, while your beloved… sits by your side" □ Such songs generally found next to banquet scenes ○ Nevertheless fear of death  "Antef song": "celebrate the beautiful day, do not tire of it! Look,nobody can take his possessions with him. Look,no one who has left has returned" □ Carpe Diem  Funerary Literature ○ Reveals both development and consistency in funerary conceptions ○ All start with formula to recite ○ Probably recited during funeral and then written on the walls ○ Eternal echo around the king  (1) Pyramid Texts □ Celestial stellar and solar hereafter □ (originally) King only □ Clear ritual background in many cases  --> (some) may originate from rituals accompanying funeral  (2) Coffin Texts □ "Democratization"of royal hereafter?  --> pyramid texts and new compositions □ Now on coffins (and some tomb walls) of elite □ First "maps" of hereafter; □ First images of desert and underground realms □ From late OK onwards  (3) Book of the Dead □ Continues earlier conceptions --> over half from Pyramid or Coffin Texts □ Not on papyrus roll (up to 25m long!) □ Not on papyrus roll (up to 25m long!) □ Vignettes  Little illustrations give focal point of each chapter □ Increased emphasis on work  --> BD(Book of the Dead) chapter 110--> Shabtis! □ Focus -> Judgement of Dead  --> BD chapter 125 □ In Dyn 26 --> canonical order --> 165 chapters □ In use, besides other compositions,until end of Pharaonic Period  (4) Underworld Books □ Collective term for number of compositions  --> most appear in NK □ Egyptian: "(booksof) What is in the Duat" (descriptions of what's actually happening in the underworld) □ Until Dyn 21:  Royal only (not even queens!) □ Destiny of sungod at night  Journey through netherworld, etc.  Culminating in Rebirth in morning ◊ Model for deceased □ Text and image form unity  Mostly representations (like comic strip) □ Codified □ Most important are:  Amduat and Book of Gates ◊ Series of gates (and sections) of underworld passed --> ◊ Correspond to night-time hours ◊ Important:Fighting Apophis (adversity), who tries to make sure sunrise doesn’t happen  Book of Caverns: ◊ Osiris more prominent ◊ --> but focus on nightly union of Re and Osiris ◊ --> two gods not clearly distinguished  United Re-Osiris – Mummifiedbody of Osiris, but head of evening sun/ram – Sun and Osiris both die and both come back up ◊ Concept of hell probably originates from concept of the underworld  Ramesses VI: ◊ Book of Gates --> entrance to upper level ◊ Followed by Book of Caverns ◊ And (--> furthest removed from entrance) Book of Earth  Emphasis on role of earth gods in creation and progression of sun ◊ Ceiling --> Book of the Day  Other Compositions ◊ Litany of Re  (7 litanies, 75 forms of the sungod ◊ Book of the Heavenly Cow  Not as thoroughly illustrated
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