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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Important Points: Lecture #4 September-19-12 1:55 PM Homework: Shaw, 36–60; Today's Topics: A. Stevenson, “Material Culture of the Predynastic Period”, in E. Teeter (ed.), Before the  Chronology Cont.  Art Pyramids (Chicago, 2011), 65–74. Put all assignments onto calendar! BACKUP NOTES! Lecture Topic: Chronology Recap During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic. • 4 ways of measuring time ○ Sothic dates  1460 years  Rising of Sothis ○ Agricultural Calendar HORUS  Changes of seasons ○ Lunar Calendar Every reigning king is embodied by Horus  Ritual purposes  Religious significance ○ Renal Dates  Establish years based on their kings • Egyptian Calendar 3 seasons of 4 months each, of 3 weeks, of 10 days + 5 epagomenal days ○ • Sources for Egyptian history ○ e.g. Autobiography of Ahmose Son of Ibana, Dyns. 17-18 ○ e.g. "Isreal Stela" of Merenptah, Dyn. 19 ○ Royal and private documents ○ Annals (reports of the work of society  e.g. The Palermo Stone □ Inscribed with political and ritual deeds of rulers from Predynastic Period to Dynasty 5 (c.2400 BCE) □ Very little evidence of historical activites  Construction of temples are indicated, etc. □ IMPORTANT: Nile Height  Egyptian King Lists □ Tables of 1. Karnak (time Thutmose III, Dyn. 18) 2. Abydos (time Sety I, Dyn. 19) There are such thing as Kings Lists 3. Saqqara (Private tomb; Ramesside Period (=Dyns. 19-20)) Royal Canon of Turin is important 4. Royal Canon of Turin (time Remeses II, Dyn. 19) □ 300 royal names □ (some) Dynasties □ Duration of each reign (in places left blank) □ Count years passed since (mythical?) 1st Eg. Ruler, Menes □ Motivation for comprising king lists  Political and ideological □ Show ruler as legitimate successor of forbears ○ Manetho (c.205-285 BCE) Ma-at(?):  Egyptian priest and historian • Egyptian concept of justice □ Wrote in Greek but could read Egyptian • Cosmic order  Major work: A History of Egypt called Aegyptiaca • Term for daughter of the sun god □ Dedicated to Ptolemy I Soter (305-285BCE) • Offspring of the creator god  Text has NOT SURVIVED > preserved in excerpts in: • King has to prove that he's doing ma-at □ Josephus (Jewish Writer, c. 70 CE) (the right thing) □ Julius Africanus (c. 200 CE) □ Eusebius (c. 320 CE)  Division of Egyptian History into 30 Dynasties  Uses "Greek" versions of Egyptian royal names □ "Amenophis" for Imenhetep/Amenhotep  Because of Manetho and the Egyptian Sources, we: What are our sources of history? □ Divide Egyptian History in 30-31 Dynasties □ Speak of THREE Kingdoms, Old, Middle, and New because three "founders" of Egypt: 1. Menes ◊ Founder of Egyptian state/Dyn 1. NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1 ◊ Founder of Egyptian state/Dyn 1.
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