Shaw, 36–60; Today's Topics:
A. Stevenson, “Material Culture
of the Predynastic Period”, in E. Teeter (ed.), Before the Chronology Cont.
Put all assignments onto calendar!
Lecture Topic: Chronology Recap
During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.
• 4 ways of measuring time
○ Sothic dates
Rising of Sothis
○ Agricultural Calendar
Changes of seasons
○ Lunar Calendar Every reigning king is embodied by Horus
○ Renal Dates
Establish years based on their kings
• Egyptian Calendar
3 seasons of 4 months each, of 3 weeks, of 10 days + 5 epagomenal days
• Sources for Egyptian history
○ e.g. Autobiography of Ahmose Son of Ibana, Dyns. 17-18
○ e.g. "Isreal Stela" of Merenptah, Dyn. 19
○ Royal and private documents
○ Annals (reports of the work of society
e.g. The Palermo Stone
□ Inscribed with political and ritual deeds of rulers from Predynastic Period to
Dynasty 5 (c.2400 BCE)
□ Very little evidence of historical activites
Construction of temples are indicated, etc.
□ IMPORTANT: Nile Height
Egyptian King Lists
□ Tables of
1. Karnak (time Thutmose III, Dyn. 18)
2. Abydos (time Sety I, Dyn. 19)
There are such thing as Kings Lists
3. Saqqara (Private tomb; Ramesside Period (=Dyns. 19-20)) Royal Canon of Turin is important
4. Royal Canon of Turin (time Remeses II, Dyn. 19)
□ 300 royal names
□ (some) Dynasties
□ Duration of each reign (in places left blank)
□ Count years passed since (mythical?) 1st Eg. Ruler, Menes
□ Motivation for comprising king lists
Political and ideological
□ Show ruler as legitimate successor of forbears
○ Manetho (c.205-285 BCE) Ma-at(?):
Egyptian priest and historian • Egyptian concept of justice
□ Wrote in Greek but could read Egyptian • Cosmic order
Major work: A History of Egypt called Aegyptiaca • Term for daughter of the sun god
□ Dedicated to Ptolemy I Soter (305-285BCE) • Offspring of the creator god
Text has NOT SURVIVED > preserved in excerpts in: • King has to prove that he's doing ma-at
□ Josephus (Jewish Writer, c. 70 CE) (the right thing)
□ Julius Africanus (c. 200 CE)
□ Eusebius (c. 320 CE)
Division of Egyptian History into 30 Dynasties
Uses "Greek" versions of Egyptian royal names
□ "Amenophis" for Imenhetep/Amenhotep
Because of Manetho and the Egyptian Sources, we: What are our sources of history?
□ Divide Egyptian History in 30-31 Dynasties
□ Speak of THREE Kingdoms, Old, Middle, and New because three "founders" of
◊ Founder of Egyptian state/Dyn 1.
NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1 ◊ Founder of Egyptian state/Dyn 1.