Lecture 18.pdf

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
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M.A.Pouls- Wegner

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Lecture #18 Lecture Topic: Homework: During the lecture, take notes here. November-14-12 Insert a sub-page for each lecture 2:01 PM topic.  ImportantPoints: Exam all multiple choice with a map question & Matching texts to authors. Today'sTopics:  The First Intermediate Period  Lecture Topic:The MiddleKingdom During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Mentuhotep the Second was founder of Middle Kingdom, dyn 11  Mentuhotep the Fourth was the last king of dynasty 11, next ruler was not related (perhaps because he had no male offspring?)  Under last rulersof dyn 11, local families once again became powerful  Dyn 12 they aim for re-centralization  Instruction of AmenemhatIII (important) ○ Written by king for his son on how to be a good king ○ Speaking as a dead king writing to his successors ○ Seems that he was killed; highlights that political situation was not fully solid  Other evidence is a mass graveof 60 fallen soldiers dated to the reign of Amenemhat  Sinuhe --> high official of court □ Overhearsmessengerstelling prince that his father has died □ Was hushed up □ Was worried and then fled country and spends many years in Syria □ In Syria, becomes influential □ Later brought back to the country  Striking is that there is a literary text during reignof Amenemhat that says a king can be killed; he is mortal. He can also be killed by merehumans.  Role of the  Importance: □ Role of the king/image of the king has changed ® Acknowledged that he can be killed by mortals □ End of dyn. 12, there is still political instability □ Amenemhatreferencesthe co-regencies.(Blames his co-ruler?)  In MK, many literarytexts composed. □ A lot of texts seem to have particular message □ Another text: Prophecies of Neferti  Referenceto everything being horrible  Man coming from South (elephantine) who will come and everything will be great  Clear propaganda text  Satire of the trade ○ Many professions numerated. Father trying to convince the son to become a scribe by telling him all sorts of other jobs that he wouldn’t want because those professions are miserable.  Time when administration is expanding  Needed to walk around the country and draft administrators  Early Dynasty 12: Internal Affairs ○ AmenemhatI -- likely vizier under Mentuhotep IV ○ Calls himself Horus wehem-mesut (="Renaissance-Horus")  (also Thutmose III, Tutankhamun, Haremhab, Seti I, Rameses XI)  Pyramids ○ Lisht (--> near capital; Amenemhat I) ○ El-Lahun (Amenemhat II + Senwosret II) ○ Dahshur (AmenemhatIII, Senwosret III*)  Stone core (re-used materials from OK mortuary temples)  Literature as Propaganda ○ Prophecy of Neferti ○ Teaching of Amenemhat ○ Story of Sinuhe ○ Satire on the Trades/ The Teaching of Khety  Promotes profession of official/bureaucrat over all others  Promotes profession of official/bureaucrat over all others ○ Loyalist Instruction  Promotes loyalty to the king  Administration ○ System loosely based on OK structure, but variations  Palace and bureaucracysupported by tax-system □ Based on assessment of yields from lands and waterways □ Paid in kind  External Affairs (Early Dynasty 12): ○ Western Asia: Policy remainsessentially defensive  Several military campaigns against Asiatic Bedouin / a'amu under AmenemhatI and successors □ Prisoners of war --> become "slaves" in Egyptian households □ "Walls of the Ruler" built □ But mostly peaceful commercialrelationships, esp. with
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