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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #9 October-10-12 1:58 PM Homework: Today'sTopics: ImportantPoints:  Kingship  Lecture Topic:Kingship Duringthe lecture,take notes here. Inserta sub-pagefor each lecturetopic.  (Early) Kings and Politics ○ Ruler'sNames  Often indicate political program  ArchaicHorusnames □ Aggressiveconnotations  HorusNarmer:"The Nasty Catfish"  HorusAha:"The Fighter"  Representationof royal name insideSerekh(= Palace Façade) □ Points to importanceof monumental royal architecture ○ Largestructuresfor Royal Cult  1stDyn. Royal tombs □ Subsidiaryburialsof courtiers  Fortress-like structures □ Mortuary cult?  Best preserved: □ Shunetes-Zebibof Khasekhemui(Dyn. 2): ○ PalermoStone "Followingof Horus"(shemes-Her)  Royal tour throughthe kingdomfor: □ Inspection □ Tax-collection □ Exercisingjudicialauthority ○ Ruler by God'sGrace  Pharaoh □ Link between human and gods  Had to maintain Maat = CosmicOrder/ Justice  Maat = God-given □ BUT to be pursuedactively  One of the foremostroyal concerns: □ Keep enemiesof Egypt (=chaos,isfet) at bay  Subduecontinuously  Iconographyof smiting enemies  Maat= "daughter"of sungod  Later periods □ King offersMaat to gods □ They "live on Maat" □ King NOT (usually)shownas "individual" □ Rather generic  Ethical life leads to paradisein afterlife  Kings and Gods ○ Kings placed on Earth by gods  In orderto maintain Maat and defeat Isfet  Maat underthreat when king died  Every rulerre-establishesorder  Symbolic: □ Re-Unificationof Two Lands (re-foundingthe country) ○ The Ritual King  Nb jrj jxt - "Lord of Rituals"  EnsuringSun comes up in morning  Way of preservingMaat and smiting enemy  Makingsurerituals in temples are performed,so cosmicorderstays in Egypt  King is also preserverof fertility  Ritual of cutting grain so that god
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