Lecture 17.pdf

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #17 November-07-12 1:59 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Important Points:  First IP  Middle Kingdom Lecture Topic: The First Intermediate Period and Social Change During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Civil War ○ The battles of Ankhtifi of Moalla  Struggle for local independence/economic advantages □ Dyn. 9 has some allies (e.g. Assiut) □ Other provinces neutral (e.g. Beni Hasan) □ Others fight (Southern nomes)  Famous Source: □ Autobiographical inscription of Ankhtifi of Moalla  (3rd UE nome of Hierakonpolis) in Dyn. 9 (AEL I, 83-86)  Glimpse of upheaval and changing allegiances  Claims saved own nome from famine --> reality?  Unprecedented self praise ◊ Newly-won confidence of local elites ○ Contrast: Parallel texts of opponents in North (Assiut, el-Bersha)  Stress connection with (Herakleoplitan) King (!) ○ Text provides:  Glimpses of historical processes □ In youth: 8th Dynasty still has some influence in south □ A King Neferkare mentioned once  3rd king of Dyn. 9?  Purely religious role  ALSO: □ Brutality of Egyptians fighting each other □ Desperation of country  Description of Military campaign against Theban (4th UE) nome □ Collaboration of "3 nomes" (UE 1, 2, 3)  Victory of Thebans □ After Ankhtifi --> Theban Count Antef has power in region □ Leads to rise of 11th Dyn.  Stress on military prowess □ Trained and permanent army (unlike OK) □ Frequent representations of troops in tomb decoration of nomarchs □ Settlement of Nubian mercenaries in neighboring Gebelein at this time ○ Instructions for King Merikare (AEL I, 97-107; WKS, 152ff)  Further essential text for understanding of period □ Mentions battles for dominance in South (esp. Abydos) □ Re-instating of nomes (nomarchs) in "ravaged" northern areas □ S and W pay taxes  Reflects entirely new understanding of state and kingship □ Stresses duties of king towards people:  Man does not live for the state, but the state is (also) there to protect man!  Man made in God's image  If later --> composition impossible without 1st IP developments  Birth of the "Individual" in Egypt?  Early Dynasty 11 ○ Influential Theban family rule South  (--> likely fought Ankhtifi) Rulers named Intef (--> "Inyotef") ○ Rulers named Intef (--> "Inyotef") ○ Own provincial "Culture"  e.g. Saff-tombs at el-Tarif  Deliberately distinct from Memphite tradition ○ Intef II (rules 50 years) calls himself "Great Overlord of Upper Egypt" ○ Adopts titles of Son of Re and Dual King ○ Dyn. 12 --> sees as great ancestor  Dyn. 11 in the Karnak King List ○ (13)Count Intef --> (12)Mentuhotep I --> (11)Intef I --> (10)Intef II --> (9)??  Early Dyn. 11 ○ Develop own "culture" --> e.g. Saff-tombs ○ Intef II later honoured as great ancestor of MK
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