Homework: Today's Topics: Important Points:
Lecture Topic: The First Intermediate Period and Social Change
During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.
○ The battles of Ankhtifi of Moalla
Struggle for local independence/economic advantages
□ Dyn. 9 has some allies (e.g. Assiut)
□ Other provinces neutral (e.g. Beni Hasan)
□ Others fight (Southern nomes)
□ Autobiographical inscription of Ankhtifi of Moalla
(3rd UE nome of Hierakonpolis) in Dyn. 9 (AEL I, 83-86)
Glimpse of upheaval and changing allegiances
Claims saved own nome from famine --> reality?
Unprecedented self praise
◊ Newly-won confidence of local elites
○ Contrast: Parallel texts of opponents in North (Assiut, el-Bersha)
Stress connection with (Herakleoplitan) King (!)
○ Text provides:
Glimpses of historical processes
□ In youth: 8th Dynasty still has some influence in south
□ A King Neferkare mentioned once
3rd king of Dyn. 9?
Purely religious role
□ Brutality of Egyptians fighting each other
□ Desperation of country
Description of Military campaign against Theban (4th UE) nome
□ Collaboration of "3 nomes" (UE 1, 2, 3)
Victory of Thebans
□ After Ankhtifi --> Theban Count Antef has power in region
□ Leads to rise of 11th Dyn.
Stress on military prowess
□ Trained and permanent army (unlike OK)
□ Frequent representations of troops in tomb decoration of nomarchs
□ Settlement of Nubian mercenaries in neighboring Gebelein at this time
○ Instructions for King Merikare (AEL I, 97-107; WKS, 152ff)
Further essential text for understanding of period
□ Mentions battles for dominance in South (esp. Abydos)
□ Re-instating of nomes (nomarchs) in "ravaged" northern areas
□ S and W pay taxes
Reflects entirely new understanding of state and kingship
□ Stresses duties of king towards people:
Man does not live for the state, but the state is (also) there to protect man!
Man made in God's image
If later --> composition impossible without 1st IP developments
Birth of the "Individual" in Egypt?
Early Dynasty 11
○ Influential Theban family rule South
(--> likely fought Ankhtifi)
Rulers named Intef (--> "Inyotef") ○ Rulers named Intef (--> "Inyotef")
○ Own provincial "Culture"
e.g. Saff-tombs at el-Tarif
Deliberately distinct from Memphite tradition
○ Intef II (rules 50 years) calls himself "Great Overlord of Upper Egypt"
○ Adopts titles of Son of Re and Dual King
○ Dyn. 12 --> sees as great ancestor
Dyn. 11 in the Karnak King List
○ (13)Count Intef --> (12)Mentuhotep I --> (11)Intef I --> (10)Intef II --> (9)??
Early Dyn. 11
○ Develop own "culture" --> e.g. Saff-tombs
○ Intef II later honoured as great ancestor of MK