Lecture 11.pdf

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #11 October-17-12 2:09 PM Homework: Important Points: Lecture Topic: The Old Kingdom (I) - The Pyramid Age During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  There are 44 known pyramids in the old kingdom, all together in Egypt is 118  Memphite Necropolis ○ Cairo down to Mazghuna ○ Memphis is on the WEST bank, not the East (sometimes shown on maps on the East) ○ (Esp.) Pyramids of OK -> "embody" royal power ○ Great Pyramid at Giza  (builder --> Khufu/Kheops of Dyn. 4, c. 2580 BCE)  146m high x 230m wide ○ 2,300,000 blocks of limestone  Each average 2.5 tons ○ Khufu reigned 23 years  Approx. 285 bricks a day ○ 3 important pyramids of Giza plateau  Pyramid of Khufu  Pyramid of Khafre  Pyramid of Menkaure ○ Always temple associated with another temple at each pyramid (cause way in between the two temples) ○ Builder's quarters lived near pyramids ○ Egyptian builders were paid with rations, usually bread  Fed bread  Beer  Fish ○ Conceptions  Palace = House/ Symbol for living king  Pyramid (complex) = same for deceased ruler  Evokes Primeval Mound: □ -> creator can take form of such mound, e.g. in Pyramid looks like primeval mound  Pyramid Texts (PT) 587 1587 c) ◊ "may you be high (qa) in this your name of high mound (qa)"  Ta-Tenen, "elevated/ing land" – One name of Creator god  Evokes Geography of Delta/ Nile Flood  Stairway or Ladder to the Heavens □ Celestial afterlife aspirations --> king hoped to unite with fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters --> Sun, Moon, and stars □ PT 267: "a stairway to the sky is set up for me that I may ascend on it to the sky" ○ Development: From Mastaba to Pyramid  Pyramids evolved out of simpler shape □ Mastaba (Arabic for "bench") □ Cultic buildings added early on  Sub-structure □ Burial chamber and Magazines  Pre- and Early Dynastic □ Mastabas for royalty AND private  Saqqara ○ Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara (early Dyn. 3, c.2650 BCE)  First "pyramid" (to survive)  Unprecedented, use of stone  Architect Imhotep □ Later divinized  Various building stages (can archaeologically proved that he started with something different and slowly changed it into a pyramid) □ Idea evolved then  Phases of construction: □ (1) Square mastaba and enclosure wall of 71,5 m length with funerary shaft 28m deep)  Shaft can be accessed via corridor leading down from Mortuary □ (2) Mastaba is lengthened on all sides by 4m (slightly lower) First pyramids are step pyramids □ (3) Is lengthened on the E-side only by 8.4m □ (4) in order to protect burial --> four-tier pyramid is conceived □ (5) base-area is enlarged, two additional tiers/steps added □ Final Result: 109x121m base area, 62,5m high  Djoser's Sub-Structure □ Beautifully decorated in Eastern gallery NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1 □ Beautifully decorated in Eastern gallery □ Original access to staircase covered when super-structure enlarged □ Are subterranean compartments  The Complex as a Whole □ Consists of: 1. Pyramid 2. South court ◊ Entered from Entrance Hall ◊ In Center  Two stone constructions shaped like letter B  For Sed Festival celebrations – *Run 3. Hebsed court ◊ Sed Festival marked 30 year anniversary  Rule confirmed ◊ Various rituals  (including run) ◊ Djoser  Chapel "Dummies" – Likely symbolized Egypt's most important shrines – Raised podium with two flights of stairs – One South, one North  Cf. Representations* 4. Houses of South and North 5. Serdab court ◊ Statue of king in Serdab  Two slits for eyes to "look out" ◊ Built against northern face of Pyramid ◊ Position aligned with private apartments in sub-structure 6. Mortuary temple 7. North court 8. Enclosure ○ Pyramid's never stand alone ○ Djoser's particularly interesting because it had running stones, wanted to show he was fit for eternal rule LECTURE 12 STARTS HERE  The Memphite Necropolis ○ Later Pyramid Developments  Remnants of other 3rd Dynasty pyramid structures □ S/W of Djoser □ Sekhemkhet's "Buried Pyramid"  Survives to 7m  Similar plan as Djosers  Zawyet al-Aryan □ Successor Khaba's step-pyramid  Originally 5 steps  Unfinished, today 20 steps  Sneferu's Pyramidsites □ (c.1613-2589 BCE) □ "leap forward" under founder of Dyn. 4 -> Sneferu □ 4 pyramids  Seila (step)  Meidum (transformed step)  2 at Dahshur) □ Meidum (for father, Huni?)
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