Lecture 23.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #23 December-03-12 2:05 PM Homework: Today's Topics:  The Amarna Period  Important Points: Lecture Topic: The Amarna Period Continued During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  The Amarna "REVOLUTION" ○ Aten = Sundisk  Only divine power ○ First "Monotheism" in history ○ Cult center (and capital) =  Amarna (Akhenaten) ○ Priesthood (and elite) ○ Best source --> Great Hymn to the Aten (on portal)  Knowledge of other countries □ Aten has created all  Night= Death (god is gone)  Only Akh. Understands  The End of the Era ○ Questions and possible causes:  Did he push too far/too fast with his new religion?  Problems with economy and Empire: Did he "lose" the Empire? □ Amarna Letters hint at problems:  (Byblos [egyptian ally] is besieged by Amurru and Hittites --> requests support)  Local potentate Labaya harasses Megiddo area ◊ Another Egyptian ally  Some suggest that - towards the end of the reign - A. tried to "revive" severed links with Amun priesthood □ (but likely successor, Semenkhkare)  Unclear what happened at Akh.'s death --> likely buried in tomb at Amarna --> mummy never found  (Neferneferuaten and ) Semenkhare Late Dynasty 18 ○ Semenkhkare's identity and gender (!)  Debated --> should be son of Akh (--> 3 years only)  S. changes name to Neferneferuaten □ Suggestions: Nefertiti, Kiya, and A.'s oldest daughter Meritaten  But she was with Semenkhkare twice ◊ Wife  (Herself given royal titles towards end of A.'s reign)  Semenkhkare starts construction of funerary temple in Western Thebes (!) (even though capital was moved to Amarna -- trying to go back to old religion?)  Prayer from his year 3 asks □ Amun to come back! ○ Kiya shown on various monuments of A.  Disappears after year 11  Monuments reused for daughters of A. ○ Semenkhkare likely buried in KV 55  Genetically closely related to Tutankhamun --> brother?  Tutankhamun ○ Also Parentage of Tutankhamun debated  Block mentions a "King's son Tutankhaten"  Likely WAS son of Akh.  Representation of death of royal woman in royal tomb at Amaerna  Royal child nursed  May represent birth of TAA  Restoration ○ Move of Capital to Memphis ○ Becomes ruler at age 8  Two officers (senior men) take rule ○ Restoration Decree issued: (under the previous reign..)  Neglected temples NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1  Neglected temples  Poor administration  Army out of shape  Cult of Amun is up and running at the latest by later 3  Temples of Amarna begin to be dismantled  Lots of construction activity in Karnak and Luxor, but also Nubia (!)  The "Zananza affair" ○ Tut. Does after 10 years  c. 18 years old ○ Two mummified unnamed (female) foetuses in tomb  Daughters? ○ Letter by Egyptian queen  Likely Tut's widow Ankhesenamun (?)  Asking king of Hatti Suppiluliuma, for son to marry --> since "no eligible replacement" for dead husband in Egypt: □ "never shall I pick out a servant of mine and make him my husband! … I am afraid!"  Accounts in annals of Suppiluliuma □ (and a prayer by son, Mursili II) --> known as  "The Zananza Affair": …  Aya/Eje ○ Tutankhamun no offspring --> ○ Succeeded by Aya, his tutor --> possibly also vizier; old! ○ Performing cult for TAA in his tomb ○ Some think usurped throne when designated successor (Haremhab) on military campaign in Syria ○ Aya's son (?and potentially designated successor?)  Nakhtmin --> disappears (--> statue damaged) ○ Later Egyptian tradition does not regard Aya as legitimate  Excluded from king lists  Horemhab ○ General from Hnes/Herakleopolitan area TAA's deputy ○ Poss. Designated successor of Aya  But erases his memory ○ Dates his reign from death of Amenhotep III ○ Tomb at Saqqara (as general)  Then KV 57 ○ Marries Mutnodjment  Possibly Nefertiti's sister ○ Royal Decree in Year 1 --> addresses other ills suffered under Akh's reign  Claims "Restoration" as his own ○ Mutnodjmet's (?) Mummy  Buried with foetus  3 royal families, and Dyn. 18, end ○ Succeeded by another general - Ramesses I Lecture Topic: Dyn 19 During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic. • Ramesses I ○ After approx 13 years --> Haremhab succeeded general, Paramessu --> Ramesses I ○ Vizier and later deputy of Horemhab ○ Possibly from Eastern Delta ○ Succeeded by: • Seti I ○ Son --> sees himself at beginning of wehem mesut, "repeating of births"  "Renaissance" ○ Continues to rule principally from Memphis ○ Huge construction program  e.g. Temple of Abydos (fro himself, principal gods; t
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