Lecture 2

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Katja Goebs

LECTURE 2September 16 20092 Egyptian Chronology The Calendar and Historical Sources21 The Calendar Four ways to determine time 1 Agricultural Calendarobserves changes of seasonsrelates to agricultural exploitation of the landthe Nile floodThree seasons FOUR months each AkhetInundation 711PeretEmergence of the cropsWinter 114ShemuHarvestSummer 472 Lunar Calendarobservation of waxing and waning of moonused for ritualcultic purposes most of regional significance onlydetermined length of the month as 30 days c 295 days actually12 monthstypical invocation to the living passing by a tombofferings and invocations for deceased on Every New Years day every Thoth feast every First of the Year feast every Sokarfeast on every great feastparticularly important festivalslater named the month in which they were celebrated ndex The Theban Opetfestival2 month of AkhetPaopi3 Astronomical Time MeasuringDayTime observation of the path of the sunshadow clocksNightTime rising of stars and constellations 36 Decans lat decem10 day weekdetermined days of the weekHour Starsdetermine nighttime hoursSources for star clockscoffin lids from the Middle Kingdom onwardsastronomical ceilings and Nutpictures in tombs and temples from the New Kingdom onwards Nut picture believed the sky was a female goddess named Nut who gives birth to the Sun god every morningwhen you die you join the sun god in the cycle of life Egyptians believe everything goes around and around said that the scarab beetle flys up into the sky morphs into the sun godat night Nut swallows the sun godscarab notion of cannibalism4 Royal AnnalsDocumentscount the regnal years of kings and begin anew with every new rulerOther Means of measuring hourswater sand and shadowclocksbased on established system of 12 day time and 12 night time hours
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