Egypt on boundary between cooler, temperate (mediterranean) and hotter tropical belts. Part of great african desert zone: extreme heat, aridity, and wind almost rainless climate. Kemet (the black land): fertile, irrigated, sown land, cultivated land (egypt) Deshret (the red land): desert, foreign, chaotic land. The nile is 880 km (aswan to the mediterranean) [overall 6741 km] The 2 lands (taug: lower egypt (delta) from cairo to the mediterranean (160 km, upper egypt from aswan to cairo (720 km) Administrative units: the nomes (how they split up administrators) Importance of geography in the egyptian mindset: regular flow of the nile, two sources, white nile, blue nile, ebara. Resulting flood seen in aswan (end of june) Full height at cairo at the end of september annual/ regular flood (fertilized soil: deposits thick layer of rich silt, build-up of salts prevented, new minerals delivered. A good inundation = c. 7. 6m (25" above: irrigation and control of waters always a necessity.