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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

September 13, 2011 1) Inscriptional evidence: things inscribed with information that we find historically important  Temples (decorations; objects dedicated to the temple, commemorate historical events (ex, Narmer’s Palette))  Royal tombs  Tombs of high officials: autobiography, titles  Texts: papyri and ostraca (written in ink on Coptic, potsherds or small pieces of stone)  Archives (shadowy category, most did not survive)  Artifacts (funerary stele, votive palettes, maceheads, small labels) - Problems of interpretation/Biases of data  Not continuous, has gaps  Cannot represent the totality of Egyptian population  Not written specifically to inform future generations  Egyptians had a very literal concept of writing, they write because they want to actualize somethingvery subjective, served a function 2) Other written sources: - Classical Sources  Manetho: Egyptian priest sent to write the history of Egypt by the Greek during Ptolemaic times, but most of his work did not survive)  Divided Ancient Egypt into dynasties according to location of principal royal residence or kinship, listed out the reignal lengths, sum of each dynasty, provided the Greek names  Herodotus: Before Manetho, Greek historian  Like to connect things, also recorded oral historiesinaccurate information about older history - Palermo Stone  Basalt stele inscribed on both sides with royal annals of kings of Lower Egypt  Only goes up to the 5 Dynasty, stretches back to the mythological kings  Records the level of Nile inundation for taxation purposeshigher the inundation, higher the taxes  Recorded cult ceremonies, taxation, sculpture, building, warfare (similar to labels, but do not record clerical information, and labels do not record Nile inundation) - Turin Papyrus/Canon  Sources from temple archives th  Composed in the 19 Dynasty  From SIP to Menes and even mythical kings  Records the length of reigns in dynasties (indigenous to Egy
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