4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

September 20, 2011 Geography: - North (Lower Egypt): Papyrus - South (Upper Egypt): Lotus flower - Red land: desertswestern & eastern (Gold, precious stones) - Black land: silt, cultivated/irrigated lands (corridors of the Nile) - Nile:  Transportation  Links to resources  Settlement distribution  Inundation Dating System: - Ex. day 2 of the season of Peret in the fifth year of Nebmaatra - The Egyptians defined the seasons in terms of inundation  Season of Akhet: Inundation  Season of Peret: Growth/emergence  Season of Shomu: Harvest - 12 months, 30 days each, 5 epagomental days (birthdays of the gods) - New Year’s Day: heliacal rising of Sirius (the brightest star), before inundation - Year: reignal year of King - Advent of writing and the historical period: developed system, Dynasty 1 Predynastic Period: - Scorpion macehead (ceremonial object): Dynasty 0, Herakonpolis 1. Opening of a particular canal? 2. Temple foundation ceremony? - Social Complexity  Agriculture (allows for surplus, frees others to specializeurbanism)  Social stratification (egalitarian societies-chiefdoms-states; unequal access to resources)  Craft specialization  Urbanism (cities: large scale settlements)  Uniform art  Monumental architecture  Trade (over longer distances)  Writing Interpretations of Archeological Data - William Matthew Flinders Petrie: the “Father of Scientific Archaeology”  Development of Egypt in PD period: Petrie and his colleagues  Worked at Nagada  Found new objectsnew race (invaders)  Recognized the importance of pottery after Jean de Morgan corrected him  Pottery is everywhere everyone has them, and they renew very quickly because of its breakable characteristics - Jean de Morgan:  Discovered that there are grinding stonescereals, a sign of agricultural subsistence in addition to huntingprecursors to Predynastic period (corrected Petrie’s theory of the new race) - Tracing the “Neolithic Revolution” through artifacts Recent Archaeological Evidence: - Build on Petrie’s work - Karl Butzer (Environmental archaeology): cultural ecology of Egypt in the Paleolithic Period  15000 – 3000 BCE, desert savannahallowed for nomadic pastoralism, hunting & gatheringgrazing of domesticated animals (ex. sheep, goats)  Agriculture began to be a major element of subsistence economy around 5000 BCE  3000 BCE, roughly the start date of Dynasty 1, around the time in which lower Nile inundations took place Neolithic Cultures (Predynastic Period): - 5000 – 3000 BCE, more and more Egyptians began to rely on agriculture - Predynastic dichotomy (biased): division of UE and LE Egypt  UE: excavated mainly cemeteries  LE: excavated mainly settlements  2 proto-kingdoms, coalesce into a unified state at the beginning of Dynast I beginning of Egalitarian state (one king ruling bother parts of Egypt) - Upper Egypt:  Tasian  Badarian (Badari)  Black-topped red ware  Habitation sites: el-Hemmamiya, el-Matmar, Mostagedda, el-Badari  Cemeteries- most of material, lie between el-Matma
More Less

Related notes for NMC101H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.