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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

October 4, 2011 Early Dynastic Period/Archaic Period (Dynasty 1 & 2) - North Saqqara:  Dynasty 1 Mastaba Tombs of Highest Officials  Dated by jar sealings and inscribed pottery  Offerings  Large in size  Mud brick  Subterranean tomb structure + mastaba superstructure (niched façade)  Staircases down into the tombs  Some has piles of potteries and metal vessels (Ex. Flint knives, sickle, copper knives)  People sacrifice to accompany the diseased (including dwarves)  Corpses wrapped in linen soaked in resin: early attempts to preserve the body  Model bulls’ heads with real horns on the bench (one of the two tombs with this belongs to a women, which also has guard dogs burial)  Tombs first thought to belong to the rulers of Dynasty 1 and 2, but also includes inscriptions of high officials  Increasingly monumental, incorporation of timber from the Levantine coast  Began to include some kind of house/dwelling )above ground), very sophisticated  Some has burial of boats (only one at Saqqara)  A covering in form of a stepped mount  Dynasty 1 tombs have niches on all sides  Mastaba tombs of Dynasty 2  Niche on eastern side becomes offering place (precursor of “false door”)  Niche stone  Middle officials by the later Dynasty 2  Increased use of wood and resin in middle-status burials increased contact and trade with the Lebanese region - Helwan (east bank of Nile):  Tombs of Naqada III, Dynasty 1 & 2, modest in size, belonged to middle officials  Dynasty 2:  Presence of a stele set in the tomb’s ceiling carved with a seated impression of the tomb owner (name, titles, offering formulas)  Short wooden coffins for contracted coffins only found in elite tombs in Dynasty 1 much more common in Dynasty 2 - Naqada (=Nagada) (Southern part of Egypt)  History of excavations by Jean de Morgan  Mastaba similar in structure to the ones in Saqqara, but not subterranean structure  Ivory docket (label) with name of (Hor)-Aha, possible Nebty (Two Ladies) name “Mn” = Menes?  Large mastaba structure, belonging to Neith-hotep? Wife of Aha, mother of Narmer? - Abydos: Umm el-Ga’ab and North Abydos  History of excavations by Amélineau, Petrie, Dreyer)  Protodynastic tombs, Umm el-Ga’ab  Cemetery U  Tomb U-j  More than 700 potteries (jars) from Syro-Palestine with oil or wine  Proto=writing labels  Many more chambers, more stuff, much more complicatedrise of proto kings  Dynasty 0 kings:  Iri-Hor  Ka  Narmer (B10)  First Dynasty Royal Tombs (Umm el-Ga’ab): Amelineau  Aha  Djer: largest, most subsidiary tombs (338), many women, boat burials  Queen Meret-neith (mother of Den? has another one in Saqqara): many subsidiary burials  Djet: Stele of Djet (inscribed stone stele)  Den: a staircase leading to the burial chamberallows the tomb to be built before the king’s death; red and black granite from Aswan, an early serdab  Anedjib  Semerkhet: entrance ramp saturated up to 3 feet deep with aromatic oil  Qa’a: thirty inscribed labels describing delivery of oil, most likely from Syro-Palestine - Human sacrifice was restricted to Dynast 1 both at Saqqara and Abydos  Second Dynasty Royal Tombs (Umm el-Ga’ab): only the last two kings Two underground of Dynasty 2 buried at Abydos  Hetepsekhemwy (tomb unknown): seal impressions found at Qa’a galleries found tombno break in succession? near Djoser’s  Raneb (tomb unknown) complex at Saqqara, tombs of  Nynetjer (tomb unknown) two of the Dynasty 2 kings?  Peribsen (Horus-Sekhemib): fairly small, mud brick burial chamber; name in serekh surmounted by Seth animal instead of Horusrebellion? Internal conflict? Epithet: “The two  Khasekhemwy (“Shunet ez-Zebib”): name in sere
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