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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

October 25, 2011 Foreign Relations with the South: st - Lower Nubia: 1 cataract, the south most boundary of Egypt  Riverine environment  Settlement concentrated in floor plain  A-Group culture: contemporary with the Predynastic culture  Independent from Egypt, disappeared around 2950 BCE  Depopulation of LN during most of OKEgyptian hostility? (now hard to excavateAswan dam)  Presence of Egyptians  Autobiographies of officials attest to expeditions to LN  Mining and quarrying operations in region of Wadi el-Allaqi  Inscriptions refer to putting down “rebellion”  Collection of “tribute” (tax)  Fortification of outposts at Buheninterest to maintain access to resources  C-Group culture: progressed out of A-Group  Indigenous culture  Egyptian objects found in the tombstrade with Egypt - Punt  Exact location unknown, on Red Sea coast, east of Upper Nubia  Source of incense  Trade in valuable commodities (gold, cattle with long horns)  Biography of Harkuf (in This tomb), official of Dynasty 6 who brought dancing dwarf from Punt to Pepy II Foreign Relations with Sinai: - Nomadic group - No written tradition - Previously established settlements destroyed by Egyptians - Sites of turquoise, copper - Temple of HathorEgyptian settlements around mining sites Foreign Relations with Syro-Palestine: - Asiatics - Egyptian inscriptions suggest a hostile relationship but objects who a trading relationship - the fall of Arad, changes in relationship after Dynasty 2 - Walled towns - Inscriptions from tombs of officials depict battles, Egyptians triumph and destroyed towns - Relations with Syro/Palestine in the Old Kingdom (EB II-III in S/P)  Biography of Weni: use of Nubian mercenaries, 5 separate campaigns, attacked by land and sea, setteled population at “Nose of the Gazelle” page 1  Inscribed objects with Egyptian royal names - Military activities are punitive in nature, response to “rebellion”, resolution involved payment - Relations with Syro/Palestine at the end of the Old Kingdom (EB IV in S/P = D6 and FIP)  Dates to the Early Bronze Agemajor change in settlement, decline or urban cities (corresponds to changes in Egypt) Foreign Relations with Byblos: - Source of good timber, resin (incense) produced by the coniferous trees - Important diplomatic ties with Byblos, gift exchanges - Preserves temples dedicated to Hathor - Located on the Mediterranean coast, port city History of the Late Old Kingdom: - Reign of Pepy II:  Accession to the throne as a young child  Longest reign in the history of Ancient Egypt  Pyramid complex at Saqqara  Indications of political instability after death - Menrenre II reigned one year and one month - Netikheret (Nitocris): last ruler of Dynasty 6; a woman (1 female ruler), Abydos and Saqqara king lists did not include her name, but included in the Turin Canon - Lost control of Egyptian borderloss of centralization - Possible factors of the collapse of OK:  NO invasion of Egypt by foreign power  Climatic conditions: periods of low Nile floors beginning from early Dynasty 6?reflection of the quality of the kings (not ruling in accordance with cosmic order of ma’at)  Warfare: fighting between nomesdisrupt agricultural cycle  Breakdown of royal succession: exacerbated or caused by the long reign of Pepy II  No evidence of unrest population as a destabilization factor  Economic pressure: resources and state expenditures  Mortuary complexes declined in scale  Considerable expenditures made out at the expense of these complexes  Growing power of local cult institutions  Increasing regionalism: local workshops flourished  Powerful provincial elites (nomarchs): concentration of power in the provincial families, titles are hereditary, not dependent on the king  Incipient growth of a middle class: far broader spectrum of individuals who can enjoy luxuries page 2 First Intermediate Period (Dynasty 7-10): Dynasty 7, 8, 9 Dynasty 9 & 10 Dynasty 10 & 11 - Dynasty 7:  Based at Memphis  Many kings, each ruled very shortly, none of the Dynasty 7 kings are on the Turin Canon  Netjerkare  Menkare  Neferkare  Neferkare Neby  Djedkare Shemai  Neferkare Khendu  Merenhor  Neferkamin  Nikare  Neferkare Tereru  Neferkahor - Dynasty 8:  Based at Memphis  Called themselves king of Upper and Lower Egypt  Only lasted 10 years  Neferkare Pepysoneb  Neferkamin Anu  Qakare Ibi I  Neferkaure  Neferkauhor Khuihapi  Neferirkare - Dynasty 9 & 10 (Hieracleopolitan Period):
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