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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course Code
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

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page 1
October 25, 2011
Foreign Relations with the South:
- Lower Nubia: 1st cataract, the south most boundary of Egypt
Riverine environment
Settlement concentrated in floor plain
A-Group culture: contemporary with the Predynastic culture
Independent from Egypt, disappeared around 2950 BCE
Depopulation of LN during most of OKEgyptian hostility? (now hard
to excavateAswan dam)
Presence of Egyptians
Autobiographies of officials attest to expeditions to LN
Mining and quarrying operations in region of Wadi el-Allaqi
Inscriptions refer to putting down “rebellion”
Collection of “tribute” (tax)
Fortification of outposts at Buheninterest to maintain access to resources
C-Group culture: progressed out of A-Group
Indigenous culture
Egyptian objects found in the tombstrade with Egypt
- Punt
Exact location unknown, on Red Sea coast, east of Upper Nubia
Source of incense
Trade in valuable commodities (gold, cattle with long horns)
Biography of Harkuf (in This tomb), official of Dynasty 6 who brought
dancing dwarf from Punt to Pepy II
Foreign Relations with Sinai:
- Nomadic group
- No written tradition
- Previously established settlements destroyed by Egyptians
- Sites of turquoise, copper
- Temple of HathorEgyptian settlements around mining sites
Foreign Relations with Syro-Palestine:
- Asiatics
- Egyptian inscriptions suggest a hostile relationship but objects who a trading
- the fall of Arad, changes in relationship after Dynasty 2
- Walled towns
- Inscriptions from tombs of officials depict battles, Egyptians triumph and
destroyed towns
- Relations with Syro/Palestine in the Old Kingdom (EB II-III in S/P)
Biography of Weni: use of Nubian mercenaries, 5 separate campaigns,
attacked by land and sea, setteled population at “Nose of the Gazelle”
page 2
Inscribed objects with Egyptian royal names
- Military activities are punitive in nature, response to “rebellion”, resolution
involved payment
- Relations with Syro/Palestine at the end of the Old Kingdom (EB IV in S/P = D6
and FIP)
Dates to the Early Bronze Agemajor change in settlement, decline or
urban cities (corresponds to changes in Egypt)
Foreign Relations with Byblos:
- Source of good timber, resin (incense) produced by the coniferous trees
- Important diplomatic ties with Byblos, gift exchanges
- Preserves temples dedicated to Hathor
- Located on the Mediterranean coast, port city
History of the Late Old Kingdom:
- Reign of Pepy II:
Accession to the throne as a young child
Longest reign in the history of Ancient Egypt
Pyramid complex at Saqqara
Indications of political instability after death
- Menrenre II reigned one year and one month
- Netikheret (Nitocris): last ruler of Dynasty 6; a woman (1st female ruler), Abydos
and Saqqara king lists did not include her name, but included in the Turin
- Lost control of Egyptian borderloss of centralization
- Possible factors of the collapse of OK:
NO invasion of Egypt by foreign power
Climatic conditions: periods of low Nile floors beginning from early Dynasty
6?reflection of the quality of the kings (not ruling in accordance with
cosmic order of
Warfare: fighting between nomesdisrupt agricultural cycle
Breakdown of royal succession: exacerbated or caused by the long reign of
Pepy II
No evidence of unrest population as a destabilization factor
Economic pressure: resources and state expenditures
Mortuary complexes declined in scale
Considerable expenditures made out at the expense of these complexes
Growing power of local cult institutions
Increasing regionalism: local workshops flourished
Powerful provincial elites (nomarchs): concentration of power in the
provincial families, titles are hereditary, not dependent on the king
Incipient growth of a middle class: far broader spectrum of individuals who
can enjoy luxuries
page 3
First Intermediate Period (Dynasty 7-10):
- Dynasty 7:
Based at Memphis
Many kings, each ruled very shortly, none of the Dynasty 7 kings are on the
Turin Canon
Neferkare Neby
Djedkare Shemai
Neferkare Khendu
Neferkare Tereru
- Dynasty 8:
Based at Memphis
Called themselves king of Upper and Lower Egypt
Only lasted 10 years
Neferkare Pepysoneb
Neferkamin Anu
Qakare Ibi I
Neferkauhor Khuihapi
- Dynasty 9 & 10 (Hieracleopolitan Period):
Based at Heracleopolis (mid-Egypt)
Dynasty 9: Listed in Turin Canon only
Dynasty 10: known from graffiti artifacts, not in Turin Canon, house of Hety
Dynasty 9 & 10 have some over laps, Theban uprise in the South?
Dynasty 10: in part contemporary with the Theban kings of Dynasty 11
Kings only ruled small areas, not kings of Upper and Lower Egypt
Dynasty 7, 8, 9
Dynasty 9 & 10
Dynasty 10 & 11