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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

November 15, 2011 Building Programs: - Standardized systemKemp: “Formal tradition” - Temples dedicated to local gods (Senwosret I building inscription) - Plans not well preserved, New Kingdom temples built right on top of Middle Kingdom templesunderstanding of Middle Kingdom temples based on isolated blocks st nd - Fortresses in Lower Nubia (between 1 and 2 cataracts):  Buhen housed permanent military presence  Plains type (Senwosret I to Senwosret III)  Semna/Semite type (Senwosret III on)  Purpose of fortification is not sure, structure suggest them to be defensive in naturegrowing power of Upper Nubia site Kerma?  Control access to mineral sources located in Nubia - Agricultural/industrial works (Fayum region; Eastern & Western deserts):  Fayum became an interest of the state  Bayuda Desert: gold mines  Western Desert: series of oasisprovided wine, dates  Bahriya Oasis: Libyans (nomadic herders), “Tjehemu”  Kharga Oasis  Dakhla Oasis - Royal mortuary complexes:  Cased made pyramids, only case is granite History of the Eleventh Dynasty: - At the end of the First Intermediate Period, Theban coalition gradually gained ascendancy in LE - Nebhepetre Mentuhotep (II) succeeded in securing control over all of Egypt  Beginning of Middle Kingdom marks reunification, all of Egypt under rule of one sole king  Ruled from Thebes  In addition to “Overseer of Upper Egypt”, also created “Overseer of Lower Egypt”  Numbers of nomarchs reduced  Expeditions beyond borders:  Khety: Sinai and Aswan  Henenu: Lebanon for cedar  Tomb of the warriors at Deir el-Bahri, close to his mortuary complex: died in the war against Hieracleopolitan?  Insecurity during the time when he tried to unite Egypt + depiction of administrators carrying weapons on funerary steleinclusion of weapons in his graves  Forays into Nubia  Inscription on a masonry block from Deir el-Ballas mentions campaigns in “Wawet” (Lower Nubia)  A garrison established in the fortress at Elephantine  Self-deification  Deir el-Bahri temple: intended to be worshipped as a god in his House of Million Years  Changes name to Sematawy  Dier el-Bahri tomb:  Completely moved away from Theban and Hieracleopolitan influence  First to stress Osirian beliefsreflect the religious leveling of the funerary cult between the king and the commoners in FIP  Used terraces, verandah-like walkways (ambulatories) added to central edifice  Incorporated groves of sycamore and tamarisk trees, which were planted in front of the temple  Intimate cult centre  Hypostyle hall  Tombs of his two wives (Queens Neferu and Tem) included in his complex, later buried in the dromos tomb at the rear of his temple  Seven burials for six other “Royal wives” were found within the western walkway, all died at the same time, very young, all priestess of Hathorearliest evidence for the use of models  precursor to Shabti figures (magical substitutes when work had to be done by the tomb owner for Osiris)  Bab el Hosan (beneath the temple forecourt)  Contemporaneous as the six women chapels  Black-skinned statue in festive robe foundOsirisregenerative property of the king  Also scenes of court life - Sankhkare Mentuhotep (III): Mother was Queen Tem  Reign characterized by a certain amount of architectural innovations  Triple sanctuary at Medinet Habu  Brick temple on “Hill of Thoth”: earliest surviving example of pylons  First MK ruler to send expedition to East Africa land of Punt to obtain incense, led by Henenu sent via Wadi Hammamat  Fortifications at eastern Delta  Seven empty years after his death - Nehtawyre Mentuhotep (IV) (omitted from the Turin Canon and Abydos King List)  Expedition to quarry stone for sarcophagus led by vizier Amenemhat (founder of Dynasty 12?) described two miracles (Stele from Wadi Hammamat)  Found spring water  Found the stone of the sarcophagus, spotted a gazelle giving birth on that stone Twelfth Dynasty: - Amenemhat I:  Seems to have no relationship with the family of Dynasty 11  The Prophecy of Neferty: described problems in land and “predicts” the emergence of a powerful king  Asiatics  Walls-of-the-Ruler: built by Amenemhat across eastern approach to Egypt  Moved capital to Itj-tawy near Fayum (Lisht?), has not been found  Thebes was a bit far south, Lisht was closer to the middle of the Nile and source of Asiatic incursions  Establishes himself as a new king and differentiates himself from Dynasty 11starting out fresh  Constructed Rawaty at Mendes and the outposts of Semna and Quban in Nubiaprotect and service the gold mines in Wad Allaqi  Inscription found at Korosko (mid way between 1 and 2 ndcataracts)  One military foray against the Libyans lead by Senwosret I  Seems to be assassinated  Pyramid complex at Lisht  Burial of family members incorporated into the pyramid complex enclosure of the pyramid - Senwosret I:  Perhaps the most active in building projects  Increasing emphasis on the cult of Osiris  Living king: Horus  Dead king: Osiris  “Democratization of the Afterlife”  Association with Osiris  Pyramid texts  White chapel at Karnak: all raised reliefs, most exquisite in any period  Text “Instruction of Amenemhat I” to legitimize his reign  Reigned for 45 years, but how long was the overlap? Does it include the period of coregency?  Active in Nubia, established Buhen as the Southern frontier  Erected the victory stele at Buhen  Active in Syro-Palestine to maintain trade for cedar and ivory  First to introduce a construction program where monuments were set up in each of the main cult sites throughout the landundermined the power base of local temples and priests  The Hekanakhte papers: letters written by an old farmer to his family while away on a long business trip  Most intimate view of family dynamics  Suggested famine in Hekanakhte’s later years  Include a rare letter from a woman to her daughterliteracy of women?  Built his pyramid complex close to Amenemhat I and finished Amenemhat I’s pyramid  Used a new form of interior structure: cross walls  Larger than all the ones since Dynasty 5  Still some Theban traditions, but also a return to Old Kingdom prototype  Boat burials - Amenemhat II:  Preserved annals (genut, “day books”) that described a whole range of activities that occurred during his reign  Found at Memphis  Record royal bequests to temples  References to hunting expeditions of the king  Recorded military and trading expeditions: peace with Syro-Palestine through treaties  “Tod Treasure”: cache of objects from foundations of temple of Montu at Tod  Pyramid complex at Dahshur, white pyramid  Set on a platform  Rectan
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