NMC101H1 Lecture Notes - Second Intermediate Period Of Egypt, Senusret I, Amenemhat I

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Published on 18 Sep 2012
School
UTSG
Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course
NMC101H1
Page:
of 2
November 22, 2011
Foreign Relations with the Southlands (MK):
- Southern boundary: 1st cataract
- Beneath the 1st cataract is Lower Nubia (geographical area:
Wawet
)
C-Group culture: settlement do not extend to 2nd cataract
Indigenous
Arises in Dynasty 5
Egyptian objects found in tombs
Biographies of Egyptian officials refer to well-established
communities
- Second cataract: south of 2nd cataract is Lower Nubia
- Third cataract: Kerma, capital of Nubia, Kingdom of Kush
Building Program of Middle Kingdom State:
- Nebhepetre Mentuhotep and Amenemhat I (first phases of building fortresses:
Aniba, Kubban, Ikkur?)
- Senwosret I: construction of fortresses in Lower Nubia
Plains Type fortresses (Buhen at 2nd cataract)
Perceived main threat from the land, not from the water
No prototypes from Egypt, where did they learn how to build this?
Inspirations from Syro-Palestine? Learned during FIP?
Barracks for soldiers, bigger houses for officials
Trade with C-Group culturesgood relationship with the C-Group
peoplewhat are the fortresses for if not against the C-Group people
Collect taxes from the river
Upper Egypt
Early Kerma
Middle Kerma
Classic Kerma
Egypt
Old Kingdom
First
Intermediate
Period,
Middle
Kingdom
Second
Intermediate
Period
Lower Nubia
Hiatus
C-Group
C-
Group/Kerma
Defend against a perceived hostile activity, threats of invasionbut
from who? The Kingdom of Kush?
- Senwosret III:
Semna Type fortresses (Mirgissa, Semna, Kumma, etc.): take advantage
of the natural landscape of the areaweird shaped
Some more involved in trades, some to supply depots for campaign
into Upper Nubia
- Execration texts: lists of enemies inscribed on pottery objects or figurines to
ensure magical destruction of enemies by burying or smashing the pots or
figurines
Mentions Aamu (Asiatics)
- Semna dispatches: a set of military letters and accounts sent from Semna to
Thebes in Dynasty 13
How rigorously Egyptians policed the Nubians
Foreign Relations with Syro-Palestine and the Levant (MK):
- Archeological evidence from Syro-Palestine (Middle Bronze Age sites)
- Story of Sinuhe
- Campaigns against fortified cities: Senwosret I and III
- Execration texts
- Egyptian fortification system:
Walls of the Ruler (Amenemhat I)
Ways of Horus
- Byblos
- Asiatics in the Egyptian Delta

Document Summary

Beneath the 1st cataract is lower nubia (geographical area: wawet ) C-group culture: settlement do not extend to 2nd cataract. Biographies of egyptian officials communities refer to well-established. Second cataract: south of 2nd cataract is lower nubia. Third cataract: kerma, capital of nubia, kingdom of kush. Lower nubia: early kerma, middle kerma, classic kerma, hiatus, c-group, c- Nebhepetre mentuhotep and amenemhat i (first phases of building fortresses: Senwosret i: construction of fortresses in lower nubia. Plains type fortresses (buhen at 2nd cataract) Perceived main threat from the land, not from the water. Barracks for soldiers, bigger houses for officials. Trade with c-group cultures good relationship with the c-group people what are the fortresses for if not against the c-group people. Semna type fortresses (mirgissa, semna, kumma, etc. ): take advantage of the natural landscape of the area weird shaped. Some more involved in trades, some to supply depots for campaign into upper nubia.