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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

February 14 , 2012 Amenhotep III - Son of Thutmose IV with possibly a foreign princess - Queen Tiy was not of high birth, father was a lower official  Parents buried at the Valley of the kings  Principle wife of Amenhotep III - Also married two of his daughters - Reign characterized by the flowering of arts - Economy based on the influx of gold coming out of Nubia - Carried out several campaigns early in his reign, probably in Nubia  Almost no evidence of activity in Syro-Palestine - Most foreign campaigns were diplomatic in nature - Commemorative scarabs  Marriage to Tiy  Marriage to the Daughter of the king of Mitanni  Lion hunt - Enlarged the Karnak temple - Increasing emphasis on Re-Horakhti (the sun of the horizon) - Amenhotep son of Habu was the architect responsible for all of the architectural projects  Statue able to be placed in the temple of Karnakgreat prestige  Mortuary temple greater than all private ones at Thebes, active even in the 21 Dynasty, served as an important intermediator - Most of the Luxor temple was constructed under his reign  On the walls of the temple, portrayal of his divine birth - Reigned probably 38-39 years - Celebrated three sed-festivals - Malqata complex (western Thebes)  Many containers used to contain wine  Appear at the window to hand out praises to people  The window shaped like horizon and giving out goldemphasis on the sun  Massive harbor feature: site of some ceremonial activities  Colossi of Memnon (statues of Amenhotep III at the entrance of his mortuary temple)  The temple was huge, the size of Luxor temple  Many statues  Almost directly across the Nile from the Luxor temple  A solar court associated with the templethe “gleaming Aten” - Tomb excavated by the French  Tomb originally built for Thutmose IVfoundation deposit contains many things to Thutmose IV  Large, but not that much larger  Mummy said to be misidentified by the priests Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten - Depiction  Realistic representation of the king?  To embody the characteristics (both masculine and feminine) of the creator god?  Movement away from depicting the king as a military leader? - Son of Amenhotep III - Right from the beginning of his reign he was depicted uniquely - Began construction using talatat blocks: smaller blocks that can be carried by one mansped up the building process, but unfortunately also made it really easy to dismantle his structures  Built using sand stones: less availability in the desserts, hard to carve, but comes in yellow/reddish-brown colorssun - Gempaaten temple - The most exaggerated examples of the new way of representing the king were from the beginning of his reign - Amarna: city of Akhet-Aten (horizon of the Aten)  Middle Egypt  East bank of the Nile, a location previously not occupied  He was inspired to establish the layout of the city by Aten  The tombs of the royal family are on the east of the citythe emphasis is on t
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