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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

January 31 , 2012 th 18 Dynasty - Ahmose I: expelled the Hyksos (Stele of Tetisheri) - Reentered the kinglist tradition - Amenhotep I  Tomb inscription of Ahmose son of Ebana from el-Kab speaks of an expedition to Kush  Tomb of Ahmose-Pen-Nekhebet speaks of an expedition to Nubia  Began policy of conquest extending Egyptian control south into Nubia  Founded fortified town at Shaat (secure control over gold mines0  First to separate tomb from mortuary temple  First to be buried in the Valley of the Kings (Thebes)  Building activities in Thebes  Mortuary temple very visible  Deir el-Medina  Most people were literate, many were highly skilled artisans and knew the locations of the royal tombs  People living there were called “servants in the place of truth”  Only able to hand down their jobs to their eldest son  Community in a state of flux because besides eldest sons others sons were required to be sent out of the village, but number of individual working remains consistent  Some distance away from other cities  Barter economy (outside of the temple economy)  Community believed to be found during Amenhotep I’s reign  Deified and venerated with his mother across the Theban area - Thutmose I  Not a son of Amenhotep I  Middle aged military man when he came to the throne  A time of coregency  Married a member of the royal family (daughter of Ahmose and Ahmose-Nefertari)  Reigned 6 years  Monuments at Abydos boasting his military success  Military campaigns at Nubia, Syria-Palestine and Levant  Punitive expeditions  Extended Egyptian control south to Tombos (3 rd cataract, just north of Kerma)  Expeditions through gold rich areas (secure mines_  Expedition reached Naharin and erected a stele there claiming it Egypt’s border (close to Mitanni)  List omits southern Palestine regiontravelled by water to Byblos then went on land  Obelisk at Karnak Temple (Thebes)  Dedicated to Amun-Re  Carried out by Architect Ineni  Also built at Abydos  Stele saying that he built the temple of Osiris  The actual construction of the townsite of Deir el-Medina to house the workers there was built in Thutmose I’s reign  Canopic jars with his inscriptions found in two tombs: 1. Hathspesut moved him to her tomb 2. Thutmose III later moved him to his tomb - Thutmose II  Third son of Thutmose I, son of a wife who’s not the principle wife (sister of Ahmose-Nefertari?)  Married Hatshepsut  Reigned 13/14 years  Military campaigns in Nubia and Syro-Palestine  Nubia: punitive in nature, putting down a rebellion  Alliance between son of a chieftain who had been killed in military campaign of Thutmose I and chieftain from northern part of Upper Nubia  Harassment of fortress that Thutmose I had established in Nubia (Tombos) & the stealing of cattledefined as rebellion  A son by Isis and a daughter by Hatshepsut  Biography of Ineni (TT81)  Suggests that succession following Thutmose II’s death was peaceful  God’s Wife: often given to queens, specifically to mother of a king The king being the literal son of Amun-Reconceived as divine Queen is the consort of godreligious power and administration of temples - Hatshepsut  Both Hatshepsut an
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