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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

March 6 , 2012 Akhenaten - Armarna talatat blocks - Great Aten Temple, Akhet-Aten - Amun-Re was the target of his removal of traditional religion - Reliefs of the royal family portray gestures of gentleness & affection:  Symbolizes the king’s close relationship with the sun, the aten  Naturalism? - Amarna letters: attest to a broad network of regional communication - Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of modern Turkey  Ship from the Levantine Coast  Crew includes Syrian, Egyptian, etc. th End of the 18 Dynasty - Akhenaten - Neferneferuaten  Epithets were female  Reigned 3 years  Nefertiti? (We do not know what happened to her after Akhenaten died, did she ascend the throne?)  Often depicted as sharing all the responsibilities of kingship with Akhenaten during his reign  Had her own royal boat, on the shrine, there is a depiction of a king wearing a crown that Akhenaten usually wears smiting a foreigner Nefertiti?  Depiction of Akhenaten wearing a blue crown and Neferneferuaten wearing a double crown ticking Akhanaten under his chin - Smenkhkare  KV 55 coffin: individual was a close relative of Tutankhamum  Tomb not inscribed or dedicated to anyone, but many inscriptions of names of people of this time, the coffin was originally made for Akhenaten, but the body was that of a young man who died at the age of 18-25Smenkhare?  Crania though longer, but not outside the range of normal human being - Tutankhamum  Married to Akhenaten’s eldest surviving daughter  Abydos and Karnak kinglists omitted him (Amenhotep III straight to Horemheb, skipped the entire Amarna period)  Ascended the throne as a minor and had a series of advisers to help me return to traditional religion also a reflection of the advisers’ vision  Mother was Kiya, a wife of Akhenaten  Tutankhamum and Ankhesenamunchange name and moved out of Amarna  Restoration stele: to celebrate his restoration of the traditional gods’ temples, but later usurped by Horemheb  To highlight his veneration for the gods or did he actually had to reinstitute all cults of traditional gods?  Carried out restorations at the Theban region  Depicted as Amun and Khonsu at Karnak  Elites who mention military activity  Maya  Huy (Viceroy of Nubia)  Horemheb (Commander of the Army) At Saqqara depicts him receiving golden praises from the king Also shows the conquering of Nubians  Tomb KV 62 was excavated by Howard Carter  Though robbed twice in antiquity, still many artifacts left 1 robbery was the outer tomb: gold and precious materials 2nd robbery: oils, unguents (perfumed oil, semi-liquid), incense  Tomb resealed by the priests  Entrance concealed by the debris of Ramesses VI’s construction of his tomb  One of the very few intact royal burials (technology, clothes, food, etc.), Carter recorded everything and their context found  Died unexpectedly because the tomb was not designed for himhard a lot more material than the tomb could hold  Some of the earrings actually has writings on them mentioning the king’s epithet  Other items associated with the royal rite  Seneb game: a read game played in daily life but also symbols the journey through the netherworld  Many objects have two forms: one form used in daily life and one used in the afterlife (for mortuary use only) (ex. beds, sandals, head rests, etc.)  Musical instruments found (Ex. trumpets with the head decorated like the opening of a lotus flower (symbolism))  A slither of bone in his crania cavity: happened after his death, during mummification process  There was a fracturing of his leg near his knee that wasn’t healing properly + he also suffered from malaria, which decreased his immune systemcause of death?  He had a clubbed foothis tomb contained a lot of staffs and many look more like a cane  Directly related to the mummy in KV 55  Two stillborn babies of Tutankhanamun found in his tomb, no living children, definitely no children old enough to inherit the throne after his deathAnkhesenamun wrote a letter to the Hittite king Suppipluliuma I asking for a husband (hinting that there’s a rivalry to the throne, Ay?), the Hittite king couldn’t believe that this was for real, but his spy probably confirmed it since he did sent a son, who died on his way - Ay  An important official under Akhenaten  Married Ankhesenamun  Reigned very briefly: old age or ambitious intentions of Horemheb?  Buried at the tomb originally intended for Tutankhamun, show destructions - Horemheb  Born in Hierakleopolis and not of royal blood  Began his career under Amenhotep III  Married the sister of Nefertiti  At least middle age when he became the king  He began counting his regnal years from Amenhotep III’s death  Claimed the credit for restoring the cults of the traditional gods  He highlighted his role as the restorer of order (traditional religious cults) especially Amun-Re  He set up a great stele with the Edict of Horemheb: the text specifically addresses the abuse of power by the officials and indicates the penalties, also, the corruption of the judges could be punished with death  KV 57: many objects found has parallels to those found in Tutankhamun’s tomb  The influence of the Amarna period visible in art (less idealistic, more realistic representation of the face, etc.)  Sarcophagus intact, but mummy not present  Statue of Tutankhamun first relabeled as Ay, then by Horemheb 19 Dynasty - Good transition - Early kings able to begin the dynasty as a strong dynasty - Ramesses I  Career military officer  Ascended the throne at the age of 50  Grown up in the Delta, around Avaris, the Hyksos’ capital  Sarcophagus was empty  Queen Sitre buried in the Valley of the Queens at Thebes (before, queens were buried in a small chamber on the side of the kings’ tombs)new establishment  Established a new capital near Avaris, at Pi-Ram
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