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March 6th.docx

Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course Code
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

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March 6th, 2012
- Armarna talatat blocks
- Great Aten Temple, Akhet-Aten
- Amun-Re was the target of his removal of traditional religion
- Reliefs of the royal family portray gestures of gentleness & affection:
Symbolizes the kings close relationship with the sun, the aten
- Amarna letters: attest to a broad network of regional communication
- Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of modern Turkey
Ship from the Levantine Coast
Crew includes Syrian, Egyptian, etc.
End of the 18th Dynasty
- Akhenaten
- Neferneferuaten
Epithets were female
Reigned 3 years
Nefertiti? (We do not know what happened to her after Akhenaten died,
did she ascend the throne?)
Often depicted as sharing all the responsibilities of kingship with
Akhenaten during his reign
Had her own royal boat, on the shrine, there is a depiction of a king
wearing a crown that Akhenaten usually wears smiting a foreigner
Depiction of Akhenaten wearing a blue crown and Neferneferuaten
wearing a double crown ticking Akhanaten under his chin
- Smenkhkare
KV 55 coffin: individual was a close relative of Tutankhamum
Tomb not inscribed or dedicated to anyone, but many inscriptions of
names of people of this time, the coffin was originally made for
Akhenaten, but the body was that of a young man who died at the age
of 18-25Smenkhare?
Crania though longer, but not outside the range of normal human
- Tutankhamum
Married to Akhenatens eldest surviving daughter
Abydos and Karnak kinglists omitted him (Amenhotep III straight to
Horemheb, skipped the entire Amarna period)
Ascended the throne as a minor and had a series of advisers to help me
return to traditional religion also a reflection of the advisers vision
Mother was Kiya, a wife of Akhenaten
Tutankhamum and Ankhesenamunchange name and moved out of

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Restoration stele: to celebrate his restoration of the traditional gods
temples, but later usurped by Horemheb
To highlight his veneration for the gods or did he actually had to
reinstitute all cults of traditional gods?
Carried out restorations at the Theban region
Depicted as Amun and Khonsu at Karnak
Elites who mention military activity
Huy (Viceroy of Nubia)
Horemheb (Commander of the Army)
At Saqqara depicts him receiving golden praises from the king
Also shows the conquering of Nubians
Tomb KV 62 was excavated by Howard Carter
Though robbed twice in antiquity, still many artifacts left
1st robbery was the outer tomb: gold and precious materials
2nd robbery: oils, unguents (perfumed oil, semi-liquid), incense
Tomb resealed by the priests
Entrance concealed by the debris of Ramesses VIs construction of his
One of the very few intact royal burials (technology, clothes, food, etc.),
Carter recorded everything and their context found
Died unexpectedly because the tomb was not designed for himhard
a lot more material than the tomb could hold
Some of the earrings actually has writings on them mentioning the
kings epithet
Other items associated with the royal rite
Seneb game: a read game played in daily life but also symbols the
journey through the netherworld
Many objects have two forms: one form used in daily life and one used
in the afterlife (for mortuary use only) (ex. beds, sandals, head rests,
Musical instruments found (Ex. trumpets with the head decorated
like the opening of a lotus flower (symbolism))
A slither of bone in his crania cavity: happened
his death, during
mummification process
There was a fracturing of his leg near his knee that wasnt healing
properly + he also suffered from malaria, which decreased his immune
systemcause of death?
He had a clubbed foothis tomb contained a lot of staffs and many
look more like a cane
Directly related to the mummy in KV 55
Two stillborn babies of Tutankhanamun found in his tomb, no living
children, definitely no children old enough to inherit the throne after
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