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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

March 20 , 2012 Third Intermediate Period (21 – 25 Dynasties) 21 Dynasty - Unique royal dynasty of Smendes (Libyan), first king, referred to as “Nesbanebdjed” in the Report of Wenamun  Received formal recognition throughout Egypt  Legitimacy through marriage to God’s Wife of Amun  Resided at Tanis (port of Pi-Ramesses)  Buried at Tanis, inside enclosure of temple of Amun-Re - Effective control over Middle and Upper Egypt in hands of High Priest of Amun/Great Army Commanders (Herihor and descendants)  21 Dynasty and HPA are two branches from the same family - Relatively expansive in Levant - Increasing political influence (autonomy) of Libyan  Brought tributes in the 18 thDynasty (referred to as Meshwesh, however, had their own chiefssome extent of political organization)  Libyans: Meshwesh, Tjehenu, Tjemehu, Libu  Ramesses II: Meshwesh, Tjehenu, Tjemehu  Ramesses III and Merneptah: dominated by Libu - Tanis (San el-Hagar)  Flat, no high desert cliffs, many blocks (almost all buildings made out of reused stones since there are no stones quarried from the area) - Occasional references to Asiatics  Sphinx of Amenemhat III, with mutilated Hyksos cartouches  Large temple complex (Tanis treasure): tomb of rulers  Osorkon II: tomb depicts the judgment of the dead, but the king was never depicted as being judged before  Very interesting sarcophagus  Psusennes I’s funerary mask  Burials in hawk-shaped coffins nd  Silver coffin of Sheshonq II (22 dynasty): shape of hawk, refers to Re-Horakhti?  Temple of Amun of Opet at Tanis (same name as the Luxor temple at Karnak) Both had a sacred lake Both had a temple of Opet Tanis was deliberately laid out as a parallel
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