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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

March 27 , 2012 24 Dynasty - Based at Sais - Developed from one of the “Great Chiefdom of the Ma” in Delta - Tefnakhte expanded territory, gained control over Western Delta - Area father west controlled by “Great Chiefdom of Libu” - Political organization became very fragmented 25 Dynasty - Based in Upper Nubia, in Napata - Egyptians called this polity the Kingdom of Kush - Depopulation of Lower Nubia - Burials at El-Khurru, then Nuri - Royal tombs display development from Nubia tradition (tumuli, mounds) to pyramids - Religious centre: Gerbel Barkal, temple of Amun - Earliest tombs were circular, pyramids have steeper angle of inclination (drew inspiration from private tombs)  Often accompanied by horse tombs, buried standing up, body elaborately decorated - Gerbel Barkal, the whole landscape recalled Egyptian ideology, but there are other Nubian elements as well, such as the cap crown and the double uraeus - Nuri, pyramids were much bigger than the ones at El-Khurru  21 kings and 52 queens  All built when the Nubians have retreated back south  Layout and decoration are all very Egyptian  Kings were mummified in Egyptian stle and buried with Egyptian style goods - Stele of Piy (Piankhi)  Son of the first Kushite ruler th  Stopped the expansion of the 24 Dynasty under Tefnakhte  Stripped the High Priest of Amun’s political power  Appointed his sister, Amenirdis I as God’s Wife of Amun - Shabaqo, Piy’s son, gained control of the Delta - 25th Dynasty kings were not Egyptian so considered part of the 3 rd intermediate period - Left little kingdoms and polities intact, but managed to reestablish centralized control - Kings really believed in Ma’at, especially dedicated to Amun-Re - Stele of Shabaqo  Creation myth, Ptah  Text composed at the time of Shabaqo, pretends to be an older text  Units Amun-re with Ptah - Royal titualries went back to simpler types - Returned to traditional proportions and portrayal - New use of the double uraeus - Sphinx of Taharqa - Kings usually shown wearing very simple hat crown - Montuemhat  Governor of Upper Egypt  Mayor of Thebes  Fourth prophet of Amun  Described by the Assyrian king as the king of Thebes  Titles were hereditary  Tied to the Nubian kings by marriage - Period characterized by tension with Assyria - Sennacherib gained control over much of the Near East, including Byblos - Esarhaddon invaded Egypt, at the reign of Sarharka, although it was unsuccessful, Assyrian kings continued to invade Egypt - Necho of Sais, required to send his son Psamtek I to Minevah to be trained in the Assyrian court before being sent back to Egypt - 667 BC, Assyrian army under Ashurbanipal entered Egypt, sacked Thebes, killed many vassals, established the son of Necho, Psamtek I, at Sais - Psamtek I (Psammeticus I)  His father Necho was killed by the Assyrian  Tried to regain control over Memphis  At first ruled with the support of the Assyrians, but later began to try to break-off, since he was Egyptian, this was considered the beginning of the 26 Dynasty 26 Dynasty (Saite Period) - Reestablishment of centralized control over Egypt - Based at Sais - Psamtek I  Expanded Egypt’s control  Established strong trade relation with Levant and Greek  Had his daughter Nitiqret/Nitocris I established as God’s Wife of Amun  Flourished when Kush and Assyria were internally weak/facing other problems  Relied heavily on mercenaries (Carians, Ionian Greeks, Jews, Phoenicians, Shasu Bedouin, etc.)  Diplomacy in Middle and Upper Egypt  Era of strength and prosperity  Herodotus:
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