September 20th Lecture

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

NMC343 September 20 2012 - Horus o Son of Isis and Osiris o Osiris is murdered by his brother Seth and seth becomes king, but according to Egyptian mythology he is not the rightful king, Horus is o Therefore, in Egyptian history the Egyptian pharaohs associated themselves with Horus o He’s also known as the god of the sky, sometimes his right eye is called the sun and his left the moon o His power resides in the breadth of his wingspan, the strength of his animal characteristics, but also of who protects him o He is often portrayed as a child and he is protected by Isis, his mother o Horus has many forms: this is why syncretism can be (Horus the child, horus the king, horus the bird thing) - Hathor o One of the most important Egyptian goddesses, specifically because of her powers relating to beauty and to who she is mother of and wife to o She was the wife of Horus o Hathor is goddess of beauty and associated with the cow form o In Egyptian, the most beautiful animal is the cow o Hathor can also represent sexuality o The god Ra is sometimes a grumpy god and sometimes decides to separate himself from the rest of the world, and the gods have to bring him back, and it’s usually Hathor who has to do it because she’s so beautiful o She’s also known as the goddess of the vagina and is sometimes associated with childbirth o They believed that you couldn’t give birth until you had “seen the seven Hathors” - The Sun: Khepri o The beetle god o The beetle represents the word associated with giving birth, coming forth, being made o So Khepri is the god of the sun being born, in its earliest stage - The Sun: Re o The sun at its highest and most powerful point o Re is the god who founds kingship in Egypt, Egypt’s first king o He’s also very grumpy in most of the myths o Falcon-headed god with a solar disc over his head - The Sun: Atum o Also a very old creator god o Atum is the sun at its weakest, at its death, as it sets o Usually Atum is shown as a human wearing a crown o Atum created life, the one who gives birth to many by masturbating - Ptah NMC343 September 20 2012 o Also thought to give birth to all life, with his spinner’s wheel o Wears a really close-fitting crown (looks like a swimming cap) with really tight robes o Holds a staff with three symbols representing Ptah (wasp??, ankh, jet) - Sakhmet o Wife of Ptah o Very powerful goddess o She’s given the lion’s head because she is the mistress of destruction o She’s the goddess of warfare and pestilence o There is balance in her as well, though, she hold ankh o Just as she brings destruction she can also save you from it - Thoth o The wisest of the gods o Mediator of disputes o God of mathematics, writing, o Multitude of forms: fully human, half human half animal, sometimes baboon form - Anubis o God of death, but more specifically the god of cemeteries o Jackal head o Anubis guides the soul to the afterlife o God of mummification, assures your soul reaches the second life o Sometimes the most often mislabelled god (many jackal-headed gods) - Neith o Goddess of hunting and warfare in the north o Very old god o Carries her weapons, the bow and arrow - Popular Religion: Taweret and Bes o Taweret: giant hippo with big breasts, wearing a female wig and a crocodile tail o She protects pregnant women (the mortaility rate of childbirth was high, the average age of a woman in the early dynastic period was 21) o She’s the most powerful o Bes is also a very powerful god in the popular religion o Bes is looking straight at us, the most powerful way of displaying a person in Egyptian art o He’s a dwarf god with a lion’s mane and tail, and usually shown carrying knives o He is also used to protect women in childbirth and children Myth in Egypt - The Egyptians didn’t just have won religious story, they had many stories that all worked at the same time - It isn’t until really late in Egyptian history that we find written myth - We find hints of myths, but it’s impossible to piece together a complete story NMC343 September 20 2012 - It was mostly an oral tradition - Myths were fluid, different parts used at different times Most Important Myths - Osiris Myth - Contendings of Horus and Seth - The Deliverance of Mankind from Destruction o The god Re is grumpy and decides that people are just too loud and wants them all dead, so he calls Hathor to come kill everyone. Hathor magically turns into Sakhmet and starts killing everyone until one village is left .When she tries to go there the gods feel bad that everone is dying so they warn the village. The villagers get together and take all of the beer in the village to pour into a giant lake and dye it red to look like blood. Sakhmet tries to drink the “lake of blood” but gets drunk, passes out, and gets a really bad hangover that she wants to sleep off, and forgets about killing the village. The Temple in Ancient Egypt - The temple is one of the most important structures the Egyptians built - Function determines form: o Place of worship o Houses of the Gods  In Egyptian minds, the gods literally lived in the temple o Image of the Cosmos  Symbolism of the universe in which the Egyptians live  Without temples in the Egyptian mind, there is no cosmic order and therefore there is chaos and nothingness - Not everyone was allowed to access the temples - Important features common in all temples o Temenos Wall: meant to keep what was scared within and profane out, also symbolically that bubble around the universe that
More Less

Related notes for NMC101H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.