Lecture 6 - Dynasty 3-4

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Oct 18, 2012 Lecture 6 - Old Kingdom Dynasty 3 • Archaeological and literary sources agree concerning the number of kings Djoser/Nefjerikhet • Khasekehmwhy marks end of 2nd Dynasty • First king of dynasty 3 • Changes site of burials • Abydos no longer center of administration • Move north to Memphis area • Built tomb and palace of Saqqara • Step pyramid at Saqqara • 15 ha as a complex • Considered largest and earliest building made entirely of dressed stone (i.e., finished) • Surrounded by enclosure wall with 19 fake entrances; 10.5m tall, decorated in palace relief • Real entrance in south east corner • Controls access to sacred space but probably not a great deterrent for grave robbers • Court area is marked in centre by 2 lunate boundary stones shaped like those seen in images of the Jubilee (Heb-sed) -Arunning court for ceremonies • Raised platform = seat of dead king to oversee • Heb-sed court to east - Jubilee connected to this and the court mentioned above • Dais has 2 sets of stairs • Rise as king of upper Egypt, then rise on the other as king of lower Egypt, then retreat from both and rise as king over all • First time its a permanent structure • Did actual heb-sed take place here? • 2 types of shrines in court • Southern style, and northern style • All false buildings with rubble cores • Original chapels would have been made of non-permanent materials Imagined rituals • • To the north of Heb-sed court: • House of north (Upper Egypt) decorated w/lotuses • House of south (Lower Egypt) with papyri South tomb for the spirit of the king • • Decorated with faience tiles to look like reeds - recreate the building materials of non- permanent materials. Standardizing buildings - big marker in change • North Court • Altars • Storage rooms • Offering stele to celestial deities and spirit of king • Serdab - find in almost all tombs, a special sealed room with statue of the deceased. 2 holes so king can look out but you can’t get in. Rituals happen here - the opening of the mouth where the spirit inhabits the statue • Pyramid is 69m tall and not originally a pyramid NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Oct 18, 2012 Lecture 6 - Old Kingdom • Design driven by Imhotep the architect • Started out as big mastaba (M1) Extended twice (m2, m3) • • After that they made a big leap - added 3 other levels • Phase 2 - made 6 steps total • Not perfectly planned, and covered in shell to hide flaws • Inside chamber is decoration - first time we see royal program of ritual • On hand is the flail, the other hand holds the deed. Probably running the Jubilee for- ever in eternity - right to rule forever • Scenes change from walking to running - cartoon like hebsed • Mining activities in the Wadi Maghara Copper mine • • Egyptians continually use it • First use under his reign • Leaving their borders and going into foreign territory to take wealth Selehemkhet • Did not reign for long • Started building to the west of Djoser his own step pyramid complex but did not complete • Didn’t even get the first level finished, but he was probably still buried there Buried with beautiful things • • Have to live for a while if you want a pyramid • Well known from Wadi Maghara - first smiting scene of a bedouin • Use of turquoise in royal jewelry Khaba • 3rd king of Dynasty 3 • Limited knowedge of him • The layer pyramid at Zawiyet el-Aryan is his Because we find his name on a bowl there • • Probably didn’t reign very long • Layering is a new experimental way Sanakht and Nebka • Don’t have a clue about these 2 and they may be same persion • After Djoser • Sanakht - most complete information is from Wadi Maghara in inscriptions • Who is Nebula?Another king? Don’t know him from any contemporary archaeology, only found in later kings list • • Must have reigns such a short time as there are no funerary monuments Huni • Last king of Dynasty 3 Best known from Elephantine • NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Oct 18, 2012 Lecture 6 - Old Kingdom • The importance of elephantine rose in his reign, and it was the gateway to the south - Huni stresses importance by building a fort and a small step pyramid • Built at all sites? Or just sites important to kingship? • Don’t offer a lot of information • We think we have the head of a statue of Huni • Did probably start pyramid • Started at Meidun • Probably his as his
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