Lecture 4 - Naqada II Period & Khufu Video

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Oct 4, 2012 Lecture 4 - Naqada II Period & Khufu Video Assignment • When you pick a side of an argument, define exactly what the point of the argument is • E.g., The historical truth in Ipuwer: what you think historical truth is • E.g., Define your terms: what is a tyrant • Can use external sources • Always properly source ideas - when in doubt if its your idea, directly reference • The video watched in class is a source • MLAstyle • Video has a lot of good information Video • Khufu’s pyramid 2600 BC • Confine themselves to materials and tools available in ancient times • Sacred tombs of pharaohs designed to ensure their immortality • Death as a journey to another life • An afterlife that would last forever if things were properly organized before departure • Body protected by burial chamber called Mustafa • Contained statues of servants needed for afterlife • Kings became gods at death and could ensure afterlife for everybody • No evidence that supports pyramids built by slaves Probably constricted farm laborers in the flooding of the nile • • Graffiti says “friends of Khufu” • First pyramid built at Saqarra • Up until then it was all mudbrick Imhotep, under Djoser discovered stone as a more versatile building material • • Through his visionary they could create a stepped pyramid • Symbolic ladder for ascend of soul? • Snefru built next 3 giant pyramids Edges (or sides?) face the cardinal directions • • North south line • Wooden rollers used by ancient egyptians - only work well on a smooth hard surface • Remains of clay road beds found at pyramid sites, perhaps a sled rolled over this surface • Nile was main way through which non local materials were transported • Fine limestone only used for outer parts of pyramid • Bulk of pyramid quarried right on the Giza plateau • Each pyramid has long causeway running down to nile with temple at end • Khafre pyramid complex has all makings of pyramid town • Khafre added sphinx, carved out of natural rock • Probably has his face, and he was probably a guardian for the whole plateau • Limestone casing has long since been looted • The pyramid has permanent markers (a base?) on which it was built • Slope to put up blocks? Could have been a bigger building project then the pyramid • Some say that there was a lever on steps - seems inconceivable to Lehrner NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Oct 4, 2012 Lecture 4 - Naqada II Period & Khufu Video • They put this to the test and... It takes a very long time • Build a slope instead and it takes far less work in less time Evidence for a slope by a tomb • • Ramp along the side of pyramid works well - probably how they did ancient pyramids • First time they gathered tens of thousands in one place at one tme - what motivated them to do so? Lecture - Naqada II Period (Gerzean) c. 3,500-3,200 BC • No written language yet • Type site Gerza • Geographical expansion out of the Naqada-Matmar area into: • Faiyum • Eastern Delta • South • Most important sites: • Naqada • Heirakonpolis • Rectangular house structures Funerary Practice • More specialized and differentiated burials • Larger grave goods • Less individuals buried in tombs • Increased use of coffins (a container that holds body of the dead) • Evidence of human sacrifice • More regionally varied burial customs • Different shaped graves • Child burials sometimes in pottery vessels • Different ways of organizing the dead within the grave Still in contract position with head facing west • • Lots of pottery, jewelry and stone vessels for makeup and medicine (stone keeps things better, less evaporation, etc) • At Hierakonpolis we see increase size and complexity • **Most important is Tomb 100 • Most important tomb from Naqada II period • Large rectangular tomb with mudbrick wall • Semi wall to divide • In one section we find grave goods • In the other the burial • We found painted decoration - first tomb where we found this. Doesn’t mean other tombs were not painted but this isa very rare thing to find and it is hard to survive in archaeological record • Some type of river scene within which we have smaller scenes such as: • Hunting scene NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Oct 4, 2012 Lecture 4 - Naqada II Period & Khufu Video • Boats • Fighting scenes - evidence of warfare Figure bashing in kneeling figures heads - this is important as it is the Pharaoh as Tri- • umphant, a popular motif. Beginning of showing kingship in iconography. How king
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