Old kingdoms.docx

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
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Katja Goebs

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Old kingdoms: pyramids Worker fed bread, beer, and fish – defuse idea that they were slaves Conceptions  Palace = house/ symbol for living thing  Pyramid (complexes) = same for deceased ruler  Evokes primeval Mound: creator can take form of such a mount Pyramid texts:  Ta-tenen “elevating land” = one name of creator god  Evokes geography of delta/ Nile valley Stairway or Ladder to the Heavens  Celestial afterlife aspirations- king hoped to unite with family – Sun, Moon, and Stars Development: from mastaba to Pyramid  Pyramids evolved out of simpler shape o Mastaba (bench) o Cultic buildings added early on  Sub-structure: Djoser’s Step Pyramid at Saqqaqa (early dyn 3, c. 2650 BCE)  First pyramid to survive  Unprecented: shape, use of stone Phases of construction: 1. Square mastaba and enclosure was of 71.5m length with funery shaft 2. Mastaba lengthened on all sides by 4m 3. Is the lengthened on E- side by 6.4 4. In order to protect burial – four tier yramid conceives 5. Base are is enlarged additional steps East end beautifly decorated walls. Funery shaft like deceased living areas! The complex whole Consists of : 1. Pyramid 2. South court – a. Entered from entrance hall b. In centre c. 2 stone construcyions shaped like B d. for sed festival celebration – RUN!!! King runs 3. Hebsed court – a. stone chapel dummies – represent all important shrine of Egypt of that time. 4. Houses of south ans north 5. Serdab court a. Staue of djoser in Nems head dress i. 2 slits for eyes – look out b. built against northern face of pyramid c. position aligned with private appartments in substructure 6. Mortuary temple  Pyramids never stand alone: have chapel, tomb…..  Djoser set the standard Sneferu’pyramids (4) 92613 – 2589 BCE)  Leap forward under foundere dyn 4 snefu  4 pyramids o seila (step) o medium (transformed step) o 2 at dahshur o medium for father Huni?  Begun as step pyramid – 8 step o Cultic area moved to east o Between year 29 -33  Transformation into true pyramid failed because earthquatkes…  The true pyramid at danshur o Residence ans necropolis moved ther o Almost collapsed – ground gave, angle changed o Yr 29 3 pyramid dahshur  45 angle  first true puramid – red or north pramid  local red sandstone  contained burial provincial step pyramids  7 step puramids found in the provinces o All similar – same construction program (huni of sneferu)?  South – north o Elephantine (aswan) o Edfu south…..  Purpose disputed o Marking homeland of royal consorts o Sacred places o Symbols of primeval mound o Representing royal presence in provinces o Near religious / political centre GIZA  Hufu/kheops shi
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