NMC103H1 Lecture Notes - Padishah, Qizilbash, Hanafi

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Three Great Muslim Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
Jan 24, 2013
- Last time we discussed the Abbasid empire – prof shows map depicting
geographic regions during height of Abbasid rule
- Focusing on post-Mongol state this class
- Longest lasting empire – Ottoman – until WWII
ospecial importance for modern middle east
Three Great Muslim Empires
Highpoint: 16th-17 centuries
- West: OTTOMAN
ocapital of Byzantine empire
onot conquered until 1453 – long time to conquer Istanbul
Ottoman empire
In west; Istanbul (Constantinople, conquered 1453)1
Eponymous founder Osman (first sultan) > Osmanli (English>Ottoman)
Extent: Anatolia, s. Europe (Balkans), 2... Holy Cities (Mecca & Medina)
Ruler called sultan, later also assumes title caliph
oTurned “Turk” when someone converted to Islam—Western
terminology
Highpoint 16th c. Suleyman the Magnificent (the Lawgiver)
Palace culture, harem, huge bureaucracy (headed by grand vizier)
oDev’t under Ottomans – palace culture
oYou start to have palace institution (huge edifice of Arab empire)
Official language: Ottoman Turkish (hybrid of Turkish, Persian, Arabic)
oHybrid (not like modern Turkish) – with elements of Persian & Arabic
oArabic – still used by religious classes
Recruitment system called devshirme—administration & military (Janissary
corps); servitors of palace administration called kul(=slave)
oOttomans had same problem as Safavids – come to power by Turkic
power force (became “the” way of fighting3)
oAbassids start bringing troops of Turkic background (were best
fighters, most mobile and agile fighting force – same type as Ottoman)
oOttomans formed new method of recruitment system (devshirme)
because old method was getting expensive and complicated (required
much incentive to get troops to serve, leaving their tribes, which they
were loyal to)
oBrang in Christian boys (from Balkans) trained in palace in military, can
rise to even heights of vizier – will form elite, but regarded as slaves
(called kul)
boys usually from lower class families—parents would send
boys off in hopes that they might form a better future for
themselves
Russian, Bulgarian, Greek
By-and-large, from Christian background
oOttoman empire was multi-ethnic*
1 in lecture note
2 others mentioned in handout
3 mentioned last class
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