NMC - LEC 5 - Three Great Muslim Empires

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Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course
NMC103H1
Professor
Maria Subtelny
Semester
Winter

Description
Three Great Muslim Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal Jan 24, 2013 - Last time we discussed the Abbasid empire – prof shows map depicting geographic regions during height of Abbasid rule - Focusing on post-Mongol state this class - Longest lasting empire – Ottoman – until WWII o special importance for modern middle east Three Great Muslim Empires th Highpoint: 16 -17 centuries - West: OTTOMAN o capital of Byzantine empire o not conquered until 1453 – long time to conquer Istanbul Ottoman empire • In west; Istanbul (Constantinople, conquered 1453) 1 • Eponymous founder Osman (first sultan) > Osmanli (English>Ottoman) • Extent: Anatolia, s. Europe (Balkans), ... Holy Cities (Mecca & Medina) • Ruler called sultan, later also assumes title caliph o Turned “Turk” when someone converted to Islam—Western terminology • Highpoint 16 c. Suleyman the Magnificent (the Lawgiver) • Palace culture, harem, huge bureaucracy (headed by grand vizier) o Dev’t under Ottomans – palace culture o You start to have palace institution (huge edifice of Arab empire) • Official language: Ottoman Turkish (hybrid of Turkish, Persian, Arabic) o Hybrid (not like modern Turkish) – with elements of Persian & Arabic o Arabic – still used by religious classes • Recruitment system called devshirme—administration & military (Janissary corps); servitors of palace administration called kul(=slave) o Ottomans had same problem as Safavids – come to power by Turkic power force (became “the” way of fighting ) 3 o Abassids start bringing troops of Turkic background (were best fighters, most mobile and agile fighting force – same type as Ottoman) o Ottomans formed new method of recruitment system (devshirme) because old method was getting expensive and complicated (required much incentive to get troops to serve, leaving their tribes, which they were loyal to) o Brang in Christian boys (from Balkans) trained in palace in military, can rise to even heights of vizier – will form elite, but regarded as slaves (called kul) • boys usually from lower class families—parents would send bo
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