NMC103H1S - The Arab World

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Maria Subtelny

The Arab World Terms Arab, Arabic (terms you should differentiate b/w) • Arabic—linguistic, cultural term • An individual—Arab—speaker, also ethnic term • Arab League definition: “A person whose language is Arabic...lives in an Arabic-speaking country...citizen of an Arab country... father is an Arab...in sympathy with the aspirations of the Arabic-speaking peoples.” - Arab nations: Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Sudan, Morocco, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Levanon, Bahran,... - most Arabs are Sunni of various schools—most predominant is Malachi school - Saudi—own particular brand  Wahabi (Islam interpretation) - Turks – adhere to Hanafi interpretation - little rep. of art in Arab world, unlike (pictorial) Iranians o emphasis  calligraphy, decoration, floral motifs e.g., Mosque of Sultan Hasan, Cairo Creation of the modern Arab world • result of disintegration of the Ottoman empire • Role of imperial powers, Britain, France, (Russia o secret agreements to divide Ottoman territories—imperial powers want in on resources and pieces of empire—the 3 P’s: pride, prestige, _______  going bankrupt and institutions not holding up well – going to be called ‘sick man of Europe’  what to do with empire becomes the Eastern question o They set up Mandate system (1920) with implication that region will ultimately rule itself (though it does
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