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NMC103H1 Lecture Notes - Persian Alphabet, Ghaznavids, Babur

Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course Code
Maria Subtelny

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NMC103H1S Islam in India and Southeast Asia 14/03/13
Pre-Islamic history of India
1500-1000 BC
Islam has long history in India and SE Asia
India = “Hindustan”—Islamic name
Establishment of Vedic culture—Sanskrit birth of Hinduism, caste
system (also characteristic of pre-Islamic culture; custom was 41
classes), Buddhism2, Jainism
There were a number of dynastic states, before arrival of Islam
Islamic background
Mahmud of Ghazna dynasty of Ghaznavids (establishes) raid of
becomes known as Ghazi raider/warrior of the faith; engages in
holy war3
Known for incursions, raids, into N India lasts until end of 12th c.
followed by another dynasty—Ghurids raids into Lahore, Delhi
(which becomes capital)
Delhi Sultanate—“slave dynasties” (13th c.—early 16th c.)
Babur founds Mughals (more accurately Mughal Timurids—
descendants of “Tamerlin”
o2nd half of 16th c.Akbar
o7th c.Shah Jahan
o1707—Aurangzib (longest rule)
ocenters: Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Delhi, etc. (capitals at different
Shah Jahan (17th c.), Mughal emperor
Colonial Influence in India
British through trading company East India Company
through trade, controls India from 18th-19th c.
(until later rebellion—partition 1947, in Bengal; creation of Pakistan
1947; of Bangladesh, from East Pakistan in 1971)
owould become quasi-gov’t
oestablishment of English
regarded jewel of empire
Cultural influences on Hindustan (Muslim India)
predominantly Persian its language, literature, high culture
Turkic culture of military elites, military organization
Iranian notions of social structure (hierarchy of class) and
imperial rule (absolute, divine right)
1 significant number
2 6th c. BC
3 sometimes referred to as jihad
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NMC103H1S Islam in India and Southeast Asia 14/03/13
British English language, administration
dev’t of Urdu incorporating Persian alphabet (w/slight
SE Asia
Malaysia—largest Muslim country in world (pop. 17 million),
independent since 1957
Malay—lingua franca for entire archipelago
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