NMC103 - Islam in Africa - 19.03

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course Code
Maria Subtelny

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NMC103H1S Islam in Africa 19/03/13 Spread of Islam • N Africa—Maghreb o expansion to Maghreb • W Africa (sub-Saharan)—Bilad al-Sudan o 11 -12 c. → kingdoms: Gao, Ghana, Takrur o Islamization 1long trade routes → satellite photography determines trade routes → therefore Islamization results from trade o entrepreneurial towns ethablished o kingdom of Mali—14 c.—capital Timbuktu  15 -16 c. → capital becomes important centre for Islamic learning • E Africa—Bilad al-Zanj o spread of Islam to Horn of Africa, coastal regions, from th Arabian peninsula (Yemen) → by 16 c., coastal towns Islamized o Sufism → spreads to sub-Saharan Africa o Most important “Bantu” language = Swahili (Sahil, “the coast”)—mainly spoken SE Africa (South Somalia to Mozambique) → most spoken as lingua franca in Africa  first written in Arabic script → now written in Latin/Roman script (Christian missionary influence) o Islam spread chiefly through Muslim traders → people accepted Islam in order to do business;  also through religious scholars → introduced learning into places like Mali & introduction of books (writing) → challenged long-standing oral, African culture  Raised question—when does African history really begin?  some Islamic scholars attest→ intro of writing and Islamization landmarks beginning of African history  Natives view history before Islam as sufficient history as well • The Cape th o “Malay” Muslim,
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