* levant = grapes and olives were first cultivated and were the lead exports. * quantitative growth in community size led to quantitative growth in organizational mechanisms. this was at the heart of the mesopotamian model! * upland cities became established by 3500b. c. in places like the khuzistan region & the deh luran plain of iran. * by at least 3200b. c. , the upland city of susa had become influential, having started out as a medium sized village of 25-30 ha (62-74 acres) inhabited by a metal using agricultural people. * uruk settlers apparently had colonized or influenced developments in khuzistan by the late 4th century b. c. (ca. 3200-3100 b. c. ) * by 3200b. c. , the proto-elamites appeard at susa & other parts of khuzistan, having evolved in sw iran with its influence spreading rapidly into the highlands. * proto-elamite clay tablets have been found across a wide area from iran toward.