Linguisyic distinction; not archaeological and cultural distinction. * kingdom of assyria grew to be pretty small. * 1114: tiggly- piggly i comes to thrown; calls himself an avenger (ostentatious) campaigns (growing aramein problems) * grows dormant into the neo-assyrians; lingusituc term, also chrionolgical period; * 745-610; best lnwon for; expands dramatically; directly governing provinces persia to turkey; 705 borundary distinction set. * tried to emulate akkadian empire thru textual data; but didn"t last one one or two generations (except egytp and hittie, but they follow the akkadian empire) * dry-famrign on a good year, so needed irrigation force of organziaiton. * heartland isolated from nauteal resources trading; for resources old assyrian. * they had to look oiut, expansionist and consolation empire: how was this done, challenge to figure out arcaehologically, structureal changes, annexed territoirias: * creation of buffer zones, imperial and hostile zones. * exploitation of natural resources: construction of palaces, stone metals wood artisans and slave labour.