* structurally not that different from the old kingdom. * lack of change might have led to the second breakdown. * second intermediate period (dynasty 13-18) 1800-1600 (200 years) * ruled by foreign kings (hyksos dynasty) hyksos invade & occupy lower egypt. * pharaoh"s capital relocated to thebes in upper egypt. * they lose nubia to local rulers who eventually come to rule all of egypt, but much later (in the late period) * delta split into several kingdoms, including asiatic group called the hyksos with capital at el-dabba. * buildings of mudbrick but in egyptian style. * rock cut tombs in valley of kings replace pyramids. * new age of imperial conquest nubia to syria (egypt controls the near east) * last period of autonomous rule by pharaohs. * horus is the egyptian falcon god; and a descendant of pharaohs. * was ruled by one family known as dynasty 12; organization/ harmony focus; impose order.