NMC273Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: M. G. S. Narayanan, Classical Antiquity, Social Mobility

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I. Acquisition of empire
- Dar al-Islam; Dar al-Harb
- Qur'an IX: especially, 28-29
- Early truces with Xtns and Jews: Arabian tribal concept of dhimma (Watt, IPT,
50)
- Protection from external enemies
- Internal autonomy (Zoroastrian idea?)
- Payment to treasury
- Conquests and termination of hostilities
II. Non-Muslims
- Muslim Arabs a small minority of population in conquered territories)
- Pagan Arabs
- Ahl al-kitab (people of the Book: adherents of other monotheistic religions with
scriptures (Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians) inside and outside dar
al-Islam
- Majority of population in conquered lands
- Dhimma; dhimmi (Protection: people of the Book living under Islamic political
authority with protected status, i.e., who have accepted
Islamic authority)
- Conditions of protected status
- Termination of hostilities (sulhan/'anwatan)
- Payment of taxes (kharaj, jizya)
- Recognition of Islamic political regime
- Restrictions (so-called "Pact of 'Umar")
III. How Did Non-Muslims view the Conquests?
- Sources:
- Muslim
- Byzantine (Christian [Greek Church])
- Chosen by God as defenders of Christianity
- Accounts of pillaging, enslavement, killing
- Sophronius, Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem, Christmas sermon ca.
637
- Complaints of destruction: spoiled crops, burnt towns, burnt
churches, monasteries attacked
- Syriac (Christian)
- 7th c. uncertainty
- Apocalyptic ideas
- A punishment for sins
- Michel the Syrian 12th c., but based on earlier sources
- The Arab conquest a delivery from Byzantine tyranny
- Aramaic (Christian & Jewish)
- Range of views coloured by variety of factors
- State of world in 7th century
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