NMC273Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Kufa, Qadi, Sadaqah

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Theories of conquest
-mainly Arabic and Muslim sources
-conquerors
-Persian and Byzantine are less –accordoing to Kennedy –but more coming to light -what
did people living in the reigion perceive conquest? –earlier than Muslim chronicles,
Syriac Christians didn’t know –two ideas emerge: 8th cen. –apocalyptic idea world to the
end, conquests a sign, also seen in early Islam –conquests a punishment from God from
wrong-doings of humans
-lack of consensus
-theories of cause of conquest:
Gabrielli: religious view–unified Arab elite –emigration was encouraged by an economic
factor and booty –following Ridda campaigns was an explosive situation, need for outlet
Winkler Caetani: Italian scholar who collected the early sources, early scholar of Islam –
enviornmental cause –migration caused by desiccation of Arabia –some evidence of
drought between 591-630, people wanted to go to greener areas
Lammems: razuwa/conquests afterthought –engaged in raiding nad could see to gain
power and wealth, extention of tribal raiding going on
Karl Bakr: only after conquests that there was prosperous wealth to seek other land –
motivated by booty and land
Shaban: conquests result of economic pressures caused by ridda campaigns –going into
the fertile crescent may have created it
Canard: cause of conquest result of fight between Sassanian and Byzantine empires
IMPORTANT: MUST DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CAUSE OF CONQUEST, CAUSE
OF SUCCESS, CAUSES OF RESULT
-CONQUEST, ISLIMIZATON AND ARABAIZATION ARE DIFFERENT
-Lack of consensious of cause of conquest –didn’t look at byzantines or sassanians
deeply –administration, role of religion –morale and ability
-since it went past Arabian Peninsula, it is now world-wide
-empire had political framework for traditions
-Syria 634-638 battle of ajdinate
-iraq 634-638 alheria, qadasia, jazzer
-egypt 639-642
-babylon
-second wave of conquests
Iran
-nihivan 642
-north Africa was like nah fham –magrib and berbers didn’t want them -640s-710 to cross
ocean
-Spain 711-733 –battle at to’r –led by Charles Matel -632 –Muslim borders of France –
people allied with muslims nad others opposed it -some became ismali –magrib –
heredical sects
-female leader al-Khahina –led troops against muslims
-amr ibn almas –conquered the byzantine frontiers in north Africa, mubarka was the
town, went deep towards lake chaad –wells where people were looking for stone
-remember in book
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