NMC273Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Muhammad In Medina, Julius Wellhausen, Banu Qaynuqa

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I. Yathrib/Medina
-difference of Mecca –was an oasis, Sunni, agriculture, larger community of Jews, no
main haram
- Social-political organization: tribal
- Arab Tribes (Aws, Khazraj)
- Leadership
-two Arab tribes: Aws and Khazraj –claimed southern tribal origin
- Sa'd b. Mu'adh, leader of a clan of the Aws tribe
- Sa'd b. 'Ubada, prominent leader of Khazraj, leader of Ansar in
general after Sa'd b. Mu'adh's death
- 'Abd Allah b. 'Ubayy, active opponent of Muh's
growing power
- Muhajirun (Meccan immigrants to Medina; followers of Muhammad)
- Ansar (the Helpers; Medinan followers of Muhammad). –in medina,
they formed a new clan not based on kinship, but on religion
-Muhajirun came from h-j-r which means to abandon
-neighbours of Qurash
- Jewish tribes: B. Nadir, B. Qaynuqa, B. Qurayza
-Aws and Khazraj known as Ansair after Muhammad –comes from Meshara, which
means to asist –ansair means the helpers of the Muhammad
-Aws was leader Sa’ad b. Mu’adh –Hajiraj had leader Sa’ad b. Ubada, who became
leader of Ansar after death of Sa’ad b. Mu’adh
-‘Abd Allah b. Ubayy was active in Muhammad’s movement
-none of these men met him at Adwar
-third group: the Jews -3 of them: Banu Nadir, Banu Qaynuqa, Banu Qurayza
-Medina had no merchant class, agricultural, not a haram prior to Muhammad’s arrival
- Economic organization: agricultural community
- Religious: not a haram at least prior to Muhammad’s arrival
- Political organization
- Rivalries, tensions: tribal dispute smoldered –when Muhammad came
- Muhajirun vs Ansar –tensions come out at death of Prophet
- Jews: some supported Muhammad; some opposed new believers, leading
eventually to
a series of confrontations in Medina
- Why was Muhammad so successful in Medina compared to Mecca?
- Political
- In Mecca, Muh encountered fierce opposition, no political power
at all
- In Medina Muh’s followers no longer a beleaguered community,
now autonomous, had prestige
- Muh had come as hakam/arbitrator (in charge of dispute between
Aws and
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