NMC278H1 Lecture 1: nmc278h1 Lec 1

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Trade was alliance of nomads and merchants (often backed by leaders), dependant on long distance trade and farmers. Different groups like; arabs turks persians kurds jews. All defined linguistically except jews (now with hebrew) Linguistic groups not really geographically defined, many countries have minority groups. Turkey, syria and iraq have turks, arabs in turkey, western iran, Nation state in the middle east in historically new thing and ethnic and linguistic groups don"t really follow international borders. Borders in fertile crescent and most me defined by europeans rather than individual process of development. Ottomans and qajar-iran - 2 large empires. Qajar iran - geographically mainly todays iran. Ottomans- vast empire balkans turkey furtive crescent, egypt morocco, mecca, medina - gone. Ruling class was legally defined, did not pay tax. Both of them grouped together various diff types of people. Ruling class could come from any ethnic group. Didn"t try to impose language or culture.

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