NMC278H1 Lecture 5: Lec 5

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
James Reilly

Lec 5 ID World Zionist Organization (1897) Subheadings Zionism Ottoman Palestine Early Arab Responses to Zionism Zionism:  Jesish nationalism  Mainly started in europe 90% of jews in russia  The jewsish question in russia  The tzarist government identifies itself with pan-slavik nationalism  Slavism was a ideology that advocated unification of the slavik people and the orthodox christians  Like other national ideologies it was supported bc it have them more legitimacy  Gave Tzars a tool in its relationship with its neighbhours and northern ottoman empire  1881 onwards sought to channel nationalism into conservative anti-semetic stuff  Said that jews are different race and nation  Jews hoped around europe to assimilaite into the national communities of their nations and also maintain their private religious ID  Not possible in rascists zenophobic enviro in Russia  There was massive immigration to NA mainly USA 1.5 million went to USA  Orthodox religious continued to live hoping that god would protect them  More radical jews saw russians and govs as rascist bad, sought to build new community based on class solidarity  Social internationalism advocated rights in russia  That in the growing empire the jews were a nation captive, like the others and should struggle, millet type status  Zionism was one response amoung many in an existential threat, bad enviro  Contrary to national assimilationist or internationalists argued that jews should take on atributtes of a nation  Auoght to act as a nation  Could not live normally untill they have a nation of their home  Argued that their home was in Isreal  After 2000 year exile should reestablish homeland and have mass immigration  In zionism was minority but important b4 ww1  Initial seen as a rejection of religious passiveness  In early faces it was anti-religious anti-clerical response later on religious zionism becomes important  At this stage it was a deviation seen as bad by religious heads  Major organizational milestone  Foundation of WZO set up to coordinate grass roots movements and create strategy  B4 ww1 WZO didn’t secure european great power support of ottoman government support  Some agricultural colonies had been established  Zionist who started to go in 1880s 90s were not the first there were already jews who were there forever  1st wave establishes agricultural colonies  2nd wave starts in 1905, accelerated by the Russian revolution  Included strong socialist element  Zionists commitment to new society, said that the jews should workt he land  And placed emphasis on language nationalist consciosuly worked to revive hebrew  Hebrew was reformed to meet demands of modern societies  Did overtime become main language  One of the major achievements of the Zionists  Jewish nationalist dreamed of isreal found ottoman palestine  Northern region administered from berut southern part from jerusalem  Didn’t exist as an administrative unit, no region or province  Palestine was a relgious area that was controlled from jerusalem for both christians and muslims  As elsewhere most ppl peasants/farmer then city ppl then nomads  Mainly muslim arabs 95% then christians in 1883  90% on eve of ww1  The ottoman jews were part of the surroundings that lived under their religious authorities un hasseled unhindere
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