NMC278H1 Lecture 6: LEC 6

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
James Reilly

LEC 6 Husayn-McMohan Correspondence (1915-16) Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) Balfour Decleration (1917) Conflicting ambitions Ottoman lands Iran  Ww1 had decisive effect on ME, modern map  Divided by vitorious european powers  Goals and ambitions of conbatants  Ottomans CUP in control, 3 main figures  Ottomans allied with germany  CUP progerman b/c of role of german military missions in rebuilding ottoman army after balkan wars lost all of europe except eastern thrace  CUP in 1913 purged officer core, rebuilt using german help  Politically Germany lacked overt territorial ambitions in the ME  Germany had generally supported teritorial integrity of the ottoman  Ottoman iridentalism directly to british and Russians  Hoped the war would allow empire to regain lost territory  Could stay neutral but gambled that the germans could win  Germany thought that through the ottomans after the war they would have power over most of the ME  France and GB saw favorable territorial gain after break up of the ottoman empire  Final resolution of the eastern question  France hoped that territoral gains would help compensate the losses  GB wanted to consolidate power in ME and extend into fertile crescent  Take over of areas like iran would create area of british control from medditeranian to burma  Russia thought it would compensate for the losses they suffered, sothern shores of the black sea, istanbul  British and russia agreed that after war they would annex parts of iran  The iranian government sought to be neutral but had little power to protect land  Non state forces were also involved  Nationionalists, ottoman arabs, greeks, armenians  Thought that defeat would mean independence  Arab nationalist wanted self government, state in the fertile cresent  Zionists hoped that redrawing of the map would give way to isreal  Gaining politcal support was a major goal of WZO  No one had yet showed will to support them  Iranian nationalists fled tehran to organize armed resistance in the country side  Iranian nationalists received german and ottoman assitance in guerilla war against GB and Russia  All of this was a mutually contridicting ambitions  Tore down the ottoman empire  GB and varies parties had secret meetings about what to do with the ottoman territories if they win  territorial bookings in advance  Earliest of these the husayn mcman correspondance  1916, sharif hussain of meccah who received authorization to negotiatie on behalf of arab national movement  Propasal to GB that arabs would help war effort against ottomans if they support independence  Agreed launched the arab revolt broke out in meccah and besieged the garr
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