NMC278H1 Lecture 9: LEC 9

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
James Reilly

LEC 9 Husayn-McMohan Correspondence (July 1915-March 1916)  British afraid of Muslim solidarity throughout the area (in India as well)  Wanted to use Sharif as a counterweight to the Ottoman-Islam  Sharif was the amir of Mecca, most prestigious post in Arab-Islam  Sharif didn't like the CUP nor they him  1915 Husayn Shairf sent a letter to the british high commissioner of Egypt Sir Henry McMohan proposal  Husayn wanted British recognition of an independant Arab state (arab peninsula, syria, lebanon, palestine, iraq) in exchange for military support against Ottomans  McMohan says not all the area can be theirs b/c of commitments to France (cant have area west of Damascus)  They dispute each other, decide to postpone the matter, Husayn did consent to Britsh postwar occupation until admin established  British also promised to provide supplies  The deal and wording was very ambitious but still arab perception that Britain has betrayed them, misled them  Arab revolt led by Husayn began June 1916, tribal forces attack Mecca  Husayn geared propoganda towards CUP not the caliph  was not an arab nationalist just an ambitious dynast  Husayn’s call failed to generate organized response in other provinces, not a popular uprising. narrow enterprise relying on tribal levies  Take damascus in 1918  forces commanded by his son Amir Faysal, led troops into Damascus, set up administration Nasser: THE SCENE  tensions and popular resentment towards the establishment (the British, the King Faruq, Landowning elites o failure to secure independance o spanking by Isreal o growing gap between rich and poor o 94% of landowners only had 35% of the land o rural impoverishment as landless labor o in the cities mass poverty o Muslim Brotherhood largest, most popular organization o PM assassinated, MB leader assassinated  extent of the political disorder and social disarray RISE TO POWER: FREE OFFICERS AND THE COUP  1952  junior military officers (free officers)  lead by Nasser  father was a rural villager, not from established elite  believed loss to Israel b/c of corruption of the elite  all mostly from lower social status  persuaded respectable General Naguib to act as figure head  after coup formed Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) CONSOLIDATION OF POWER:  do away with rivals and gain popular support  Abolished king and got rid of Faruq (1953)  Declared Republic  abolish political parties  after MB member tried to assassinate Nasser got rid of them, moved underground  Accused Naguib of supporting MB, got rid of him (house arrest for 30 years nigga) DOMESTIC POLICIES  Populist government, populist policies  Agrarian Reform Law 1952  redistribution of land  Gave women the vote  ARAB NATIONALISM  government nationalization of LOTS of stuff, from hotels to banks  lots of large-scale showcase projects, steel/iron plants, Dam  only modest returns  more land reforms 61 - 100 feddans, 1969 50 feddans  large scale land ownership pretty much dissappeared  small farms = 55% of area  gave women more rights, school workplace  no real family law reforms though FORIEGN POLICY  Anglo-Egyptian Agreement,Sudan right to independence  evacuation of British troops from the Suez Canal (but allowed to come back if any attack)  Seen as diplomatic victory for him  refused to sign Baghdad Pact, encouraged others to not also  seen as defiant of the traditional western imperialism  Got Soviet arms deal disguised as Czech arms deal worth $200 million  undermined the US attempts to stop USSR expansion of influence  acclaimed for asserting independence from US-Anglo  wanted to build dam, west say no so nationalized the Suez Canal  massive admiration as Suez was symbol of imperialism and exploitation  GB-FRANCE-ISREAL attack Egypt  attack stopped by US/USSR pressure  Suez Crisis was military failure but a massive political win  Egypt retained the canal  able to stand up to the big ol boys and survive!  1958 USSR fund Aswan Dam  became more militarily dependant on USSR, sent pilots for training etc.  played both off each other  6 DAY WAR  nasser prestige diminished by flop arab unity, intelligence reports of is israel attack on syria  nasser blocks straits of titan  sign mutual pact w/ jordan  brinksmanship  israel attack, spank 3 arabs  disaster for arabs and nasser  12 000 losses, lost canal, sanai, had to take Saudia and kuwait subsidies  curroption and mismanagement in the egyptian army disgraced entire regime  completely dependant of USSR  purges, suicide etc. FORIEGN POLICY IN ARAB WORLD/PAN-ARABISM  unequivocally arab leader  single minded emphasis on arabism and pan-aran unity  moved away from previous emphasis on pharaohs and greeks  UAR, syria and egypt, flopped  egypts intervention in Yemen, inter arab fighting, had to withdraw, bad PR, bad arab-arab relations  Radio Cario all around the arab world  Umm Kalthum, egyptian singer May 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement  number of agreements signed amongst Entente for ME “advanced bookings”  purpose to prevent postwar disagreements  Russia offered Turkey and Istanbul to stay in the war Constantinople Agreement  Tensions between Brits and France as france wasn’t able to protect ME interests  To prevent such tensions Sykes Picot Agreement  Contravene portions pledged to Sharif Husayn  France “direct control” over syrian coast, southern lebanon into Anatolia  exclusive Indirect influence in Syrian interior  British get direct control of southern mesopotamia Gaza to kirkuk indirect influence  in the agreement Husayns area would be the stuff with the indirect control Balfour Decleration 1917:  another advance booking Balfour Decleration November 1917  advance booking of US, Russian and German Jewry to secure control of territory beside Suez Canal to establish jewish homeland  decleration conveyed in letter from FS Balfour to lord rothschild british zionist, britian would still occupy though, violation of promise made to Husayn  Purpose to make Jews in their countries push their governments to support the war effort Rise and Fall of Faysal’s Syrian Kingdom 1918-20 Amir Faysal was forming arab government in damascus staffed by young activists, ex ottomans, sharif forces etc. March 1920 Syria declared and independant state with Faysal as the king rebirth of arab kingdom To france it was a usurpation of French claims, violation of Franco-British agreement British had to renounce any support, treaty gave syria to France Faysal tried to negotiate but july 1920 French forces take Damascus British place Amir Abddallah, Faysals brother as new leader of some unclaimed land Transjordan to bring stability declaration further french expansion, territory would be part of palestine mandate but separate from balfour aftermath of the war produced bitter feelings towards west who supposedly betrayed the arabs pledges to Husayn had been sacrificed for self interests Wafd:  After WWI the british mandate of egypt created discontent in the citizens.  Britian realize the importance of egypt in WW1  Group of 7 prominent egyptians want to do and represent egypt at the PPC  British don’t allow it  The delegation lead by the charismatic leader Zhaglul travel around the country and rally support for their cause,
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