Other than palestine not characterized by colonization and immigration. Mandates had characteristics in common o o o o o. Priority of establishments of local military, police forces, establish repressive apparatus. Find allies by exploiting ethnic, regional and religious differences. Identify cleavages in society and manipulate and exploit them. Both british and french mandates economic policies to keep european control over key economic interests: gb was stronger, could show more tactical movability. They give certain identified iraqis and handed over day to day stuff to them. In 1932 they felt confident enough to end the mandate system in iraq. British officials in iraq typically those who had experience from india. French officials ussually people with experience in algeria and morroco. State building in syria and iraq preceded more or less from sratch. They tried to bring in syria and iraqis who served the ottoman government. Pool of trained people small, so had to recruit the former ottoman workers.