NMC278H1 Lecture 8: LEC 8

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
James Reilly

Interwar Mandates in Iraq, Trans-Jordan, Syria and Lebanon  Other than Palestine not characterized by colonization and immigration  Mandates had characteristics in common o Relied on external support o Priority of establishments of local military, police forces, establish repressive apparatus o Find allies by exploiting ethnic, regional and religious differences o Identify cleavages in society and manipulate and exploit them o Both british and french mandates economic policies to keep european control over key economic interests o GB was stronger, could show more tactical movability  They give certain identified iraqis and handed over day to day stuff to them  In 1932 they felt confident enough to end the mandate system in Iraq  Allowed them to join the league o France weaker  Kept very tight administrative and military control  Kept it until collapse in WWII  Degree of french influence lingered in lebanon  But syria ended in WWII o British officials in Iraq typically those who had experience from India o French officials ussually people with experience in Algeria and Morroco o State building in Syria and Iraq preceded more or less from sratch o Less so in Lebanon o They tried to bring in syria and iraqis who served the ottoman government o Pool of trained people small, so had to recruit the former ottoman workers  Problem as these were some of the people who most strongly associate themselves as arab nationalists  As government officials believed in the modern state, wanted indigenous state  Euros needed these personel but they were often at odds  In the face of the opposition GB and france had to win them over  Main tactic was to play on differences in the people Faysal ibn Husayn o Son of sharif Husayn o Made him the king of Iraq in 1921 o Government was quite weak, gradually won support of political class o Most of iraq were sheas, but government mainly run by sunnis o Most people where sheas but people in power were sunnis o Country side turned over to tribal shaikes and land owners o Pushed for them to take sole ownership of land o Upto 25% where Kurdish and other speakers  Didn’t have much tie to the bagdad administration o 1924/25 british pressing faisal to sign treaty to allow foreign ownership of all oil/future oil in Iraq o In the end he had to give in, Iraq petroleum company, british, french, us ownership o Iraqi governments stuctural dependance meant that british confident in ending mandate, ended mandate in 1930 signaled end in 1932  Continuation of bases (mainly airbases) would stay  Iraqi foreign policy would align with british  Iraqi recognized the econom
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