New admin and legal structure for the state. Advocate of tanzimat ideology of ottomanism for patriotism ottoman homeland and dynasty. Legal equal of all religious and national groups. Ha(cid:373)id"s regi(cid:373)e: arabic language was removed from offices as islamic education became less popular, arab literest movement. Armenians different lay intelligencia critical of the clergy. New sense of arab identity form of cultural arabism. Islamic reformists jamal addin afhgani and muhammad abduh. Ottoman claim to the caliphate revival of islam in the modern world in arab hands. Both arabism and early salafism justified each other. Construct an image of the past for create a reformed society. Both muslim and christian writers talked about the cultural communities recent past devalued. Renaissance europea(cid:374)"s (cid:271)reak (cid:449)ith the (cid:373)edie(cid:448)al era re birth of their culture. Arab renaissance early history was exemplary but medieval was dark ages wanted to surpass it.