Premodern world enchanted spirits and ghosts and fairies. Religion abdul karim surush does comparison of religions. Minimalist extends to very small human life. Pre colonial era ottoman empire/safavid empire and the mughal. Fall of delhi india becomes dar al harb. No more darr al islam occupied by non muslims christians. King was deposed and deposed (bahadur shah) Hindus and muslims both participated in the mutiny. Confisication of property top elite washed out. Language was changed from persian to english. Muslim population was supposed to be literate. Muslim intellectuals prime motif was to survive. Superficial argument excellence of pure language and speech: nothing contrary to science in islam, today the sun is stationary vs the sun is moving towards its destination. Dr muhammad iqbal: turned sufi, conden=mned western knowledge, educated in europe western disciplines to carry a lot of weight, not in anti colonial. Combine and integrate the modern branches with the old ones.