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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations

Wednesday, November 16/11 Mediaeval Middle Eastern Ceramics R. Mason Syria • Near Damascus,Aleppo, Raqqa • Citadel ofAleppo - lots of pottery Conquest usually results in purposefully breaking pottery - if someone doesn’t break poetry • we won’t ever find it • What we may call Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq • Tell al- Asharna • Slip incised war from northern Syria • 11th century • Alot less colour • Aleppo and Damascus both think they are the oldest cities in the world ‘Shipwreck’Group • Serce Liman shipwreck • Segmental profile bowl with a simple rim and short slightly splayed ring base • Red body covered with thin pale clay slip which is then incised through in thin and broad lines to expose the red body Vessel is then covered with thin lead glaze • • Coins in shipwreck date sequence toAD 1024 • Same petrofrabric as Qaysariyya and Jerusalem Syrian Group One Luster Ware • Includes Tell Minis, some of the Laqabi wares and other monochrome incised wares • Tell Minis from Hama • Forms include conical bowls and bowls with sides that are slightly concave on interior; carination with a rim that is recurved or flattened; large bowl with truncate ellipse profile • Probably one of the later forms is the flat-rimmed bowl • Base profiles are similar but not uniform • Generally squarish wedge shape and is splayed • Also can be squarer-profiled but equally splayed • Tell Minis: • Attribution is dodgy but all have same petrofrabric • Many found in caves • Luster painted • Stonepaste body • Lead alkali glaze that is transparent • Luster paint • Similar to potters from fustat - highly technological approach to pottery • Perhaps potters who went to Syria were Israeli missionaries? • Decoration consists of central figure with scrolling foliage • Figure and foliage are highlighted by inscription through the lustre pigment • Laqabi: • All have same petrofrabric • Related to incised ware from fustat Wednesday, November 16/11 Mediaeval Middle Eastern Ceramics R. Mason Syria • Carved design with faint carvings isolated design • Alot of work to do the carving Lead alkali glaze with tine opacified glaze • • Because it is lead alkali glaze the colours run • If you want polychrome you have to carve :. rare • 1075 onwards Only use two mythical creatures: Harpy and Cherubim • TellAl-Asharna • Lost Crusader castle • Antioch taken by christians Governor sends out muslim and christian men to make ditch bigger and leaves them outside • • Franks kill everyone and eat people and babies! • Take Jerusalem and kill everyone • Found islamic pottery in bronze age tell which helps date site Cherubim • Originally looked like sphinx • Persians come up with ‘nice angels’ • Hebrew angels were Host (‘army’) Flanking the lost arch ‘mercy seat’ • • Semetics have singular, plural and dual; Cherubim always dual Syrian Group Two Luster Ware • Raqqa, Damascus and Hamma Broad rims like Fatamid series • • Distinctive motifs • Dark brown (copper) • Green (silver) Problem with silver is that its worth more so they went from silver to copper • • Silver shortage in 1100? • Predicted from coinage • Explains lack of silver luster paint Alkali glaze so the mix of copper and lead doesn’t turn black during reduction • • Hama: • Bowls, dorm with splayed foot rings like Tell Minis, others have vertical feet • Overall design formed by a pattern of radial lines forming panels in between • Raqqa: • Line-rim style • Flat rimmed bowls • Motif is similar to Tell Minis SyrianAlkali Wednesday,
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