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African Studies Nov 1st.docx

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New College
Thomas Tieku

African Studies Nov 1 st 11/1/2011 7:19:00 AM Lecture 9- Africa’s interaction with Americas before emergence of modern states in Africa Democracy because - assembly system in most empires - checks and balances—all power not given to one particular individual or group - can easily be removed from chiefdom by subjects two ways of thinking about relationship nature of interaction .1 trade was the key feature of the interaction 2. Africa was introduce to Americas through scholarship and in particular through the work of anthropologists who were the initial ppl focusing on trade and Atlantic slave trade - interaction with North America with Africa was done through intermediaries - Portugeses introduced Africans to us through transportation of Africans to Americas - brought them to Brazil - in 1501, the first African slave arrived in the Americas via Spain - was Portuguese that transported slaves, first people to engage in slave trade, 1441, Portugese bought African from present day Mauritania - Portugese never went to Africa to buy human beings, went to Africa for; heard through rumours about powerful African Christian king that lived in West Africa and wanted to find him and use him to spread Christianity, but more importantly, got idea that Africans were very rich and wanted to trade goods and services slaves seen as commodities, brought them partly because for production of sugar cane - to some extent it was sugar that introduced Africa to us - by 1505, first African was transported from African continent to Brazil - by 1518, large number of Africans being transported how did these Africans get purchased? - bought from other Africans, bought slaves from kings themselves because most Africans (those who commited crime, were convicted and had to use body to compensate for crime (hard labour) ) and Africans didn’t know that selling the convicts to be slaves was a different form of slavery where you cant be unslaved whereas in Africa you could -- when two kigndoms fought, the one that lost become subjects to other, and those subjects can be sold as slaves - knew that war was important in getting slaves, so they introduced guns and gunpowder to Africans to assist war and allow Africans to capture slaves in bulk - introduction of gin to kings also allowed for slave trade - kidnapping africans was another way - many ppl (Africans paid by Europeans) had jobs to kidnap Africans and happened sometimes through raids , transport them along the coast and then they’d be bought - kidnapping also took place on their farms - also direct purchases from Africans (bulk done by Africans themselves because ffew Europeans could go to the interior to do it) by 1460 and 1600s , human beings bought instead of gold methods: capturing, kidnapping, raiding, pawning and prisoners composition of the trade: - very gendered, males preffered - some estimate nearly 60 percent were males (opposite to African slaves where women dominant slave group) - almost 80% between ages of 15 and 30 - over 45 were rarely sold body features counted—well built, tall - majority of physically challenged individuals were not really sold - most children left in slave villages that were barricaded so cant run - by 1800s , lots of Africans were in Europe (due to slavery) - slaves were cheap labour - slave trade driven by private business not govt—it was just legal /resources provided /supported by govt but wasn’t done by govt - when Europeans encountered Africans, no differences seen between them except foreigners and indigenous- no superiority - no hierarchy in terms of thinking in the beginning, slave trade initially driven by need for profit - but then, to enhance the trade, European govt decided to consciously design laws and rules to legitimatize idea of Africans as slaves- didn’t want Africans to claim rights so as a result ranking of human beings - used religion in bible to justify slave trade – saying old testament had slaves and jesus didn’t preach against it - rough figure of at
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