African Studies Jan 10 th 2/14/2012 9:51:00 AM
3. Waves of decolonization
4. Causes of decolonization
Africa has interacted with a number of people outside of the continent
such as Haitians, Arabs and most of the interactions were positive
even with Europe. For 300 years Europe trade with Africa. They traded
goods and services then to trading humans then it was replaced by
control of land known as colonialism.
The berlin conference played a fundamental role. And they made up
rules for dividing Africa. EXCEPT south Sudan, they were all demarcated.
The European boards were mated in such a way that reflected the
society that lived there, the ethnic composition that lived there.
Most of the Europeans had never even been to the land they were
demarcating so they had no idea about the ethnic and regional
boarders that had already been there.
People who have lived together for a long times who didn?t know
anything about boarders were separated.
Although ethnic groups are socially constructed in the first place,
Europeans attempted to create different ethnic groups between the
Africans who considered themselves of the same ethnic group. For
people to differentiate themselves from ?the other?, they create hate
in order to emphasize their difference.
The 2 major developments:
1) political/social impact
2) integration of Africa into the capitalist European economic system
from the 1920s onwards, Africans began to ask serious questions about
their state, ?why should Europeans colonize/rule over us??
decolonization: efforts to stop foreign political control of African
it was rapid and relatively peaceful compared to decolonizatin elsewhere in the world.
Waves of decolonization. Started around the 1950s. first country who
gained its independence was LIBYA. (Not, Ghana as many say).
[Liberia was where freed American slaves would return to. Egypt was so
strategic in the grand scheme of things that it was controlling some
part of Sudan. Europe did not see Egypt as an African country, but
more of a country where everybody would go. Ethiopia was not colonized
because of its strong emperor, difficult landscape to conquer and lack
of resources that Europe was looking for.]
countries who were freed first: Libya, Sudan, Ghana and Guinea.
It was hard for guinea because guinea was controlled by France and