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African Studies-jan 17 2012.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
New College
Thomas Tieku

African Studies- Jan 17 2012 1/17/2012 8:12:00 AM Decolonization process continued from last week First wave of decolonization was when british decided to grant colonies. Second wave was with ?? --- decolonization very peaceful and process intellectual in nature (except Kenya and Algeria) – differed because seen as permanent settler state for europeans and didn’t want to grant independence to these states wthout knowing if citizens would be protected third wave happeed in southern African part. Not peaceful, a lot of settler pppl, and the british and French didn’t want to grant independence to protedt interests of settlers -- areas where there were significant levels of british and French, it was hard to get independence factors that led to decolonization process WW1 - the first shot in the first world war was not hsot in Europe but was shot in togo. Arfrica. Instantly Africans were drafted into the WW1 --- thought of it as European civil war - begin to question why they were involved in a war that had nothing to do with them.. question this idea--- answer was because they were under the power of someone else. So military began to complain - second thing was that Africans were meant to provide foodstuff to support the war cause and also basic necessities - to some extent this created shortages in most African countries. The little they produced, they were forced by colonial authorities to give to the ppl fighting the war. - ppl started being unhappy about the state of colonial rule. Began to question whether colonial authorities had Africans at heart -first world war brought to the attention of a number of Africans – ordinary Africans, of the exploitative nature of colonial rule because it affected everyone even ordinary ppls - first world war also created high unemployement among African countries - a number of Europeans had at that time ceased their production, so they couldn’t buy them, and Europeans themselves also were much more focused on the war - to some extent, this discouraged mass production across African continent because most manufacturing companies run by Europeans, and when European companies wernt manufacturing, lotta Africans were laid off - then rest of staff channeled to war cause - first war dismantled a number of myths about colonial rule - first myth was that Europeans had god given right to rule Africans, esp. in rural areas—mission Christians preaching this idea that it was god that gvave Africans European rulers - also myth that Europeans have superior powers over Africans, and therefore have god given right t manage Africans - another myth that Africans themselves cannot displace the Europeans--- would be crushed—Europeans immune to the bullet - Europeans promised Africans certain benefits after war, and those benefits in a number of cases were unfulfilled - for example--- promised that ppl who were ex service men would be given employment and severance packages - promises unfilfillled because European economies were crushed after war - ex service men that saw Europeans die on battlefield, marched and demanded services—protest movements across African continent by ex service men - in some cases, European colonial offices did not respond to these protests in a peaceful way – e.g Ghana, Malawi, Kenya, ex service men who marched were shot at by colonial police officers--- provided a reason for post colonial rulers to agitate for independence and engage in mass protests against colonial regime - iidea of protests against colonial rule was started by ex service men who were no longer afraid of Europeans who know that the Europeans can die second world war similarly played important role in decolonization process - as a result of the second world war, a new superpeower had emerged within international system. --- the power structure had shifted from Europe to the Americas - America had then emerged as the most powerful country in western hemisphere - americans felt that it was not the right of one country to colonize another-- - introduced idea of self determination--- meaning it is untenable for one country to colonize another country, however, Europeans succeeded in striking a deal with the americans in such a way that the self determination would only apply to western ―civilized‖ world.--- only be self determining when you are civilized so uncivilized Africans cant be asked to determine themselves. - second development was that a new international system put in place led by the united states. – series of conferences held between 1944-1945 that led to creation of distinctive international political and economic system. - UN was created (key political organization that emerged) and under UN charter was this idea of emphasizing statehood and non interference of iinternal affairs of another state. - putting more pressure on Britain, france and Belgium to grant independence to these colonies. - new economic system emerged based on capitalist economic framework and defended and protected by two major institutions or one—the Britain Woods Institutions ==== the world bank group (purpose of redeveloping Europe that was shattered by war, and also free flow of capital to places) , and the intenational monetary fund IMF. (to ensure that countries do not go into deficit.—act as global police of international money) - US felt that capitalism can only operate effectively if money flows third element of the Britain woods institutions was GATT – general agreements of tariffs and trade which was to ensure there was free trade across the world - reflected US understanding of what the world is - Old Europe started to vex, and one state, soviet union came to challenge the US who wanted to reorganize things into capitalist economic system led by Us and strongly supported by france , Britain and Taiwan to make it look like a global thing - started cold war - led to competition for friendship within international hemisphere - two major powers wanted to friends with African countries, so they had to appease African political leaders, and this gave African emerging political leaders the bargaining chip that they never prvioulsy had - put more pressure on Britain and france (from international pressure exerted to decolonize them so that they could have ppl on their side) - also old Europe was broke so no point really keeping colonies - all this happenin while Africans in the diaspora (us, canada, and Britain) also felt that their fight for equality was only possible when Africans can self determine themselves - particularly, African Americans began to addd this to their own civil rights campaighn - George Padmore and a numbef of African americans began to put pressure on American govt to put pressure on Britain etc to decolonize - unless Africans seen as equal, then they themselves as black ppl cant claim equality in the diaspora—used power of education to put pressure on govt - new African leaders who were edcatated and could articulate and push for independence—ppl like (first president of Ghana)—first country on black part of Africa to get independence - these educated ppl kwami komah ?? took part in pan African conferences— series of conferences led by African americans that started from 1900s— reinforced idea of blackpersonhood- to suggest to the rest of the world that a black person is as human as any other --- number o
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